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Archived Manual Chapter: 3-DNS Reference Guide version 4.2: SNMP
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12

SNMP



Working with SNMP on the 3-DNS

3-DNS ships with a customized simple network management protocol (SNMP) agent and management information base (MIB). This chapter describes the management and configuration tasks with which you can configure the 3-DNS SNMP agent.

The 3-DNS SNMP agent and 3-DNS MIB allow you to monitor the 3-DNS by configuring traps for the SNMP agent or by polling the system with a standard network management station. The 3-DNS SNMP agent has the following options to ensure secure management:

  • Community names
  • TCP wrappers
  • View access control mechanism (VACM)

Using the Configuration utility, you can configure the 3-DNS SNMP agent to send traps to your network management system. You can also set up custom traps by editing several configuration files.

Warning: If you want to monitor the 3-DNS using the SEE-IT Network Manager, you must configure the SNMP agent on the 3-DNS.

Configuring SNMP on the 3-DNS

To use SNMP on the 3-DNS, you must complete the following tasks:

  • Download the 3-DNS MIBs and load them into your network management station
  • Modify the following configuration files:

    • /etc/hosts.allow
    • /etc/snmpd.conf
    • /etc/3dns_snmptrap.conf
    • /etc/syslog.conf
  • Configure options for the checktrap script

    Note: If you are configuring the 3-DNS module on a BIG-IP, you configure any SNMP settings using the BIG-IP Configuration utility.

    Downloading the MIBs

    The 3-DNS includes a proprietary 3-DNS SNMP MIB. This MIB is specifically designed for use with the 3-DNS. You can configure the SNMP settings in the Configuration utility or on the command line.

    SNMP management software requires that you use the MIB files associated with the device. You can obtain the following three MIB files from the 3-DNS directory /usr/local/share/snmp/mibs, or you can download the files from the Additional Software Downloads section of the Configuration utility home screen. The files you need are:

    • 3dns.my
      This is a vendor MIB that contains specific information for properties associated with specific 3-DNS functionality, such as load balancing.
    • rfc1611.my
      This is a DNS server MIB (RFC 1611) that provides standard management information.
    • UCD-SNMP-MIB.txt
      This is a MIB-II (RFC 1213) that contains specific management information for the UC-Davis SNMP agent.

      For information about the objects defined in 3dns.my, refer to the descriptions in the object identifier (OID) section of the MIB file. For information about the objects defined in rfc1611.my, refer to RFC 1611.

    Understanding configuration file requirements

    You need to make changes to several configuration files on the 3-DNS before using the SNMP agent. Once you change these configuration files, you must restart the SNMP agent. The files are discussed in the following sections.

    /etc/hosts.deny

    The /etc/hosts.deny file must be present to deny, by default, all UDP connections to the SNMP agent. The contents of this file are as follows:

    ALL : ALL

    /etc/hosts.allow

    The /etc/hosts.allow file specifies the hosts that are allowed to access the SNMP agent. You can configure access to the SNMP agent with the /etc/hosts.allow file in one of two ways:

    • By typing in an IP address, or list of IP addresses, that are allowed to access the SNMP agent.
    • By typing in a network address and mask to allow a range of addresses in a subnet to access the SNMP agent.

      You can specify a list of addresses that you want to allow access to the SNMP agent. Addresses in the list must be separated by blank space or by commas. Use the following syntax:

      daemon: <IP address> <IP address> <IP address>

    In the following example, the SNMP agent accepts connections from the specified IP addresses only:

    snmpd: 128.95.46.5 128.95.46.6 128.95.46.7

    For a range of addresses, the basic syntax is as follows, where daemon is the name of the daemon, and NETWORKADDRESS/MASK specifies the network that is allowed access:

    daemon: NETWORKADDRESS/MASK

    For example, the following example sets the snmpd daemon to allow connections from the 128.95.46.0/255.255.255.0 address range:

    snmpd: 128.95.46.0/255.255.255.0

    The previous example allows the 256 possible hosts from the network address 128.95.46.0 to access the SNMP daemon. You may also use the keyword ALL to allow access for all hosts or all daemons.

    Note: If you prefer, instead of modifying this file from the command line, you can use the Configuration utility to specify the hosts that are allowed to access the SNMP agent. See To set SNMP properties using the Configuration utility, on page 12-7 .

    /etc/snmpd.conf

    The /etc/snmpd.conf file controls most aspects of the SNMP agent. This file is used to set up and configure certain traps, passwords, and general SNMP variable names.

    A few of the necessary variables are listed below:

    • System Contact Name
      The System Contact is a MIB-II simple string variable defined by almost all SNMP systems. It usually contains a user name and an email address. This is set by the syscontact key.
    • Machine Location (string)
      The Machine Location is a MIB-II variable that is supported by almost all systems. It is a simple string that defines the physical location of the system. This is set by the syslocation key.
    • Community String
      The community string clear text password is used for basic SNMP security. This also maps to VACM groups, but for initial read-only access, it is limited to only one group.
    • Trap Configuration
      Trap configuration is controlled by these entries in the /etc/snmpd.conf file:

      • trapsink <host>
        This sets the host to receive trap information. The <host> variable is an IP address.
      • trapport <port>
        This sets the port on which traps are sent. There must be one trapport line for each trapsink host.
      • trapcommunity <community string>
        This sets the community string (password) for sending traps. Once set, it also sends a trap upon startup: coldStart(0).
      • authtrapenable <integer>
        Set this variable to 1 so that traps can be sent for authentication warnings. Set the variable to 2 to disable it.
        Note: To change the trap port, be sure the trapport line precedes the trapsink line. If you use more than one trapport line, there must be one trapport line before each trapsink line. The same is true for trapcommunity; if you use more than one trapcommunity line, there must be one trapcommunity line before each trapsink line.
    • System IP Setting
      You must set the system IP address using the sysip command; if this setting is not present, the checktrap.pl script fails to send all 3-DNS-specific traps. Use the following syntax to set the system IP address:

      sysip <3-DNS IP address>

    Note: If you prefer, instead of modifying this file from the command line, you can use the Configuration utility to set these SNMP properties. See To set SNMP properties using the Configuration utility, on page 12-7 .

    /etc/3dns_snmptrap.conf

    The configuration in the /etc/3dns_snmptrap.conf file determines which messages generate traps and what those traps are. The file includes OIDS, traps, and regular expression mappings. The configuration file specifies whether to send a specific trap based on a regular expression. An excerpt of the configuration file is shown in Figure 12.1

    Figure 12.1 Excerpt from the /etc/3dns_snmptrap.conf file

     # Default traps.    
    .1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.1.2.2.2.0.1 (SNMP_TRAP: VS.*?state change green.*?red) VIRTUAL SERVER GREEN TO RED

    .1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.1.2.2.2.0.2 (SNMP_TRAP: VS.*?state change red.*?green) VIRTUAL SERVER RED TO GREEN

    .1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.1.2.2.2.0.3 (SNMP_TRAP: SERVER.*?state change green.*?red) SERVER GREEN TO RED

    .1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.1.2.2.2.0.4 (SNMP_TRAP: SERVER.*?state change red.*?green) SERVER RED TO GREEN

    .1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.1.2.2.2.0.5 (SNMP_TRAP: iQuery message from big3d) CRC FAILURE

    Some of the OIDs have been permanently mapped to specific 3-DNS events. The OIDs that are permanently mapped for the 3-DNS include:

    • Virtual server green to red
    • Virtual server red to green
    • Server green to red
    • Server red to green
    • CRC failure
    • Pool red to green
    • Pool green to red
    • 3-DNS active to standby
    • 3-DNS standby to active

      To see messages that are triggering an SNMP trap, look in the var/3dns/log/3dns.log file.

    /etc/syslog.conf

    To generate traps, you must configure syslog to send syslog lines to checktrap.pl. If the syslog lines match the specified regular expression in the 3dns_snmptrap.conf file, the checktrap.pl script generates a valid SNMP trap. The following line in the /etc/syslog.conf file causes the syslog utility to send the specified log output to the checktrap.pl script. The checktrap.pl script then compares the logged information to the 3dns_snmptrap.conf file to determine if a trap should be generated.

    local2.warning | exec /sbin/checktrap.pl.

    Note: If you uncomment this line, make sure you restart syslogd.

    Configuring options for the checktrap.pl script

    The checktrap.pl script reads a set of lines from standard input. The script checks each line against a set of regular expressions. If a line matches a regular expression, the script sends an SNMP trap.

    The following options are available for the checktrap.pl script.

    • SNMP configuration file
      This file contains the SNMP variables. The checktrap.pl script gets trap configuration information from this file. The default is /etc/snmpd.conf.

      snmpd_conf_file=<snmp configuration file>

    • SNMP trap configuration file
      This file contains the regular expression to SNMP trap OID mappings. It also contains a description string that is added to the trap message. The default is /etc/3dns_snmptrap.conf.

      trapd_conf_file=<snmp trap configuration file>

    • SNMP trap program
      This program sends the SNMP trap. This program should be the snmptrap program included with the 3-DNS. The default is /sbin/snmptrap.

      trap_program=<snmp trap program>

    • Date removal
      This option turns off automatic date removal. Normally, each input line is expected to begin with a date. Typically, this date is removed before the trap is sent. This option keeps the date information in the trap. If you do not add this option, the date is removed from the trap by default.

      no_date_strip

    • Usage
      This option prints a usage string.

      usage

    Configuring the 3-DNS SNMP agent using the Configuration utility

    You can use the Configuration utility to configure the following aspects of the 3-DNS SNMP agent:

    • Client access
      You can define a network address and netmask for a workstation from which SNMP requests are acceptable.
    • System information
      You can name a system contact, a machine location, and a community string.
    • Trap configuration
      You can enter a trap sink and a trap community.

    To set SNMP properties using the Configuration utility

    The Configuration utility provides sample SNMP settings for your reference. To use the 3-DNS SNMP MIB, you must replace these sample settings with settings appropriate to your environment and your specific SNMP management software.

    1. In the navigation pane, click SNMP.
      The SNMP Configuration screen opens.
    2. Add the SNMP settings. For help on configuring the SNMP settings, click Help on the toolbar.

    Note: If you are configuring the 3-DNS module on a BIG-IP, you configure the SNMP settings in the BIG-IP Configuration utility.

    Configuring host SNMP settings on the 3-DNS

    After defining a host server, you need to configure its SNMP settings if you want to use SNMP host probing. Remember that you must first set up at least one SNMP prober factory on any 3-DNS, BIG-IP, EDGE-FX Cache, or GLOBAL-SITE that runs the big3d agent.

    The SNMP factory collect can collect some or all of the following information from a host:

    • Memory utilization
    • CPU utilization
    • Disk space utilization
    • Kilobytes/second
    • Current connections
    • Packet rate

    The 3-DNS gathers metrics for BIG-IP systems, EDGE-FX Caches, and several host servers. Refer to Table 12.1 for information on the host server types and the specific metrics that can be collected for each host type. To see the current performance of any of these server metrics, review the Metrics statistics screen.

    Server types and the metrics collected by the 3-DNS

    Server Type or Operating System

    Metrics collected:

    Kilobytes/
    Second

    Packets/
    Second

    CPU

    Memory

    Disk

    Current Connections

    Nodes Up

    BIG-IP

    X

    X

    X

    X

    EDGE-FX Cache

    X

    X

    X

    Alteon Ace Director

    X

    X

    X

    BSD, UC Davis

    X

    X

    X

    X

    X

    X

    CacheFlow

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Cisco CSS series

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Cisco LocalDirector

    X

    X

    X

    Cisco LocalDirector

    X

    X

    X

    Cisco SLB

    X

    X

    Extreme

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Foundry ServerIron

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Linux, UC Davis

    X

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Sun Solaris

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Windows 2000 Server

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Windows NT 4.0

    X

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Note: The Cisco LocalDirector metric shows new connections per second rather than current connections.

    To configure host SNMP settings using the Configuration utility

    1. In the navigation pane, expand the Servers item, and click Host.
    2. From the Host column, click a host server.
      The Modify Host screen opens.
    3. On the toolbar, click SNMP Configuration.
      The Host SNMP Configuration screen opens.
    4. Add the SNMP settings for the host. For help on configuring the SNMP settings for a host, click Help on the toolbar.

    To configure host SNMP settings from the command line

    1. At the command prompt, type 3dnsmaint to open the 3-DNS Maintenance menu.
    2. On the 3-DNS Maintenance menu, choose Edit 3-DNS Configuration to open the wideip.conf file.
    3. Locate or add the host server statement. (All server statements should appear after the globals statement and before wideip statements.)
    4. Define the server type, address, name, prober, probe protocol, and port information as usual.
    5. Add the snmp statement.
    6. Define the virtual server information as usual.

    Figure 12.2 shows the SNMP syntax for a host server in bold.

    Figure 12.2 Configuring host SNMP settings

     server {    
    type host
    address <IP address>
    name <"host_name">
    probe_protocol <dns_dot | dns_rev | tcp | icmp>
    [ prober <IP address> ]
    port <port number> | service <"service name">
    [ snmp {
    agent <generic | ucd | solstice | ntserv | win2kserv | ciscold | ciscold2
    | ciscold3 | foundry | arrowpoint | alteon | cacheflow>

    port <port number>
    community <"community string">
    timeout <seconds>
    retries <number>
    version <SNMP version>
    } ]
    vs {
    address <virtual server IP address>
    port <port number> | service <"service name">
    [ probe_protocol <dns_dot | dns_rev | tcp | icmp> ]
    }
    }

    Configuring the SNMP agent on host servers

    For host probing to work properly, you need to verify that the SNMP agent is properly configured on the host itself. We recommend that you refer to the documentation provided with your host SNMP software for complete configuration information.

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