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Manual Chapter: Discovery
Manual Chapter
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About discovery on BIG-IP WOM

To simplify configuration, particularly in large networks, BIG-IP® WOM® performs two types of discovery.

  • Dynamic discovery of remote endpoints occurs when the local BIG-IP WOM detects a remote endpoint on the other side of the WAN.
  • Local subnet discovery occurs when a client request to a server triggers the server-side BIG-IP WOM to discover and display the subnet that is connected to the server.

About dynamic discovery of remote endpoints

Dynamic discovery is a process through which WAN Optimization Manager™ (WOM®) identifies and adds remote endpoints automatically. The process occurs when the BIG-IP® WOM receives traffic that is matched by a virtual server with an iSession™ profile, but does not recognize the remote destination. When a BIG-IP WOM receives a request destined for a location on the network behind the BIG-IP WOM on the other side of the WAN, the first BIG-IP WOM sends out TCP options or ICMP probes to discover, authenticate, and initiate communication with the new remote endpoint.

Note: A TCP request from the client to the server is the action that triggers discovery, not a ping between two endpoints.

Modifying dynamic discovery of remote endpoints

You can modify the dynamic discovery settings, such as specifying the number and types of probe messages, or disabling dynamic discovery.
  1. On the Main tab, click WAN Optimization > Remote Endpoints > Discovery.
  2. From the Dynamic Discovery list, select Advanced to view all the settings.
  3. Modify the settings, as required.
  4. Click Update to save changes.

Manually adding remote endpoints for WAN optimization

If the BIG-IP® WOM®unit is located behind a firewall or you are working in a highly secure facility and dynamic discovery does not work in your networking environment, you can manually add one or more remote endpoints.
  1. On the Main tab, click WAN Optimization > Remote Endpoints.
  2. Click the Create button.
  3. In the Name field, type a descriptive name for the remote endpoint, such as site_B.
  4. In the IP Address field, type the IP address that the local endpoint uses to communicate with the remote BIG-IP WOM.
  5. For the State setting, specify whether optimization can occur between the local and remote endpoints. If you disable this setting after traffic is flowing, existing connections continue until they are completed.
  6. For the Outbound Connections setting, specify whether there is a route through which the local endpoint can establish connections with this remote endpoint.
  7. From the Authentication and Encryption list, select the name of the SSL profile used to connect to this remote endpoint. Any setting other than Default overrides the Outbound iSession to WAN setting on the local endpoint.
  8. In the Tunnel Port field, type the number of the port on the remote endpoint that BIG-IP WOM uses for control connections. You must specify a port that is allowed access through the firewall. The range is from 1 to 65535.
  9. From the SNAT list, select the address the system uses as the source IP address of the TCP connection between the BIG-IP WOM and the server. Select one of the following options:
    Option Description
    Default Indicates that the system uses the SNAT value set for the local endpoint.
    None Indicates that the system uses the original connecting client IP address.
    Local Indicates that the system uses the endpoint IP address closest to the destination. Use this setting to make sure the return route also goes through the BIG-IP system so that both sides of the connection can be optimized.
    Tip: This setting is useful if responses returning from the server to the client would not normally pass through the BIG-IP system.
    Remote Indicates that the system uses the source IP address of the incoming iSession connection. Use this setting when an appliance that uses NAT is located between the WOM endpoints.
  10. Click Finished.

About subnet discovery

An advertised route is a subnet that can be reached through a WAN Optimization Manager™ (WOM®). After the WAN Optimization Managers in a pair have been configured and connected, they automatically exchange advertised route specifications between the endpoints. The local endpoint needs to advertise the subnets to which it is connected so that the remote endpoint can determine the destination addresses for which traffic can be optimized. Advertised routes configured on the local endpoint become remote advertised routes on the remote endpoint; that is, the BIG-IP® WOM on the other side of the WAN.

When a BIG-IP WOM device is deployed in a large scale network with large number of servers, and many of them belong to different subnets, manually configuring local optimization subnets can be very time consuming. Subnet Discovery is designed to ease such configuration challenges. With local subnet discovery, instead of requiring manual configuration of local subnets for traffic optimization, the BIG-IP WOM system automatically discovers the local optimization subnet when traffic flows from the client side BIG-IP WOM device to a server-side BIG-IP WOM device.

Note: A TCP request from the client to the server is the action that triggers discovery, not a ping between two endpoints.

Modifying automatic discovery of advertised routes

You can modify the settings that pertain to the discovery of subnets that can be reached through the local endpoint. These settings determine how BIG-IP® WOM® learns about discovered subnets, and when to display the subnets. Using these settings, you can control the number and reach of the discovered subnets that are included.
  1. On the Main tab, click WAN Optimization > Advertised Routes > Discovery.
  2. From the Configuration list, select Advanced to view all the settings.
  3. Ensure that the Discover Routes check box is selected.
    Note: For server discovery to take place, the setting Discover Other Endpoints on the Remote Endpoints Dynamic Discovery screen of the WOM, at the other end of the connection, must not be set to Disabled.
  4. In the Stop discovery after field, type the maximum number of servers or subnets (advertised routes) you want the system to discover before it stops looking.
  5. In the Do not add servers with RTT greater than field, type the maximum round-trip time in milliseconds. The system does not add discovered servers that have an RTT over this value.
  6. In the Minimum prefix length for IPv4 address field, type the minimum prefix length for route aggregation in IPv4 networks. If you use the default value of 32/128, BIG-IP WOM adds the host address as the advertised route. If you change this value to 24, the system adds the /24 network in which the server resides as the advertised route.
  7. In the Minimum prefix length for IPv6 address field, type the minimum prefix length for route aggregation in IPv6 networks.
  8. In the Allow idle time for routes field, specify the minimum and maximum lengths of time a discovered route can be idle (no optimized traffic coming through) without being removed. You can specify these limits in days, hours, or minutes, and the unit of measure must be the same for both limits. This setting does not affect manually configured routes.
  9. In the Do not add routes with ip ttl less than field, leave the default value of 5, or type a number between 0 and 255. The BIG-IP WOM system matches the value you set with the IP TTL value of the discovery packets from the server. If the packet has an IP TTL value less than the configured value, it means the server is farther away than you want, so the system does not add the advertised route (server).
  10. To save the discovered subnets in the configuration, ensure that the Automatically save discovered routes check box is selected.
  11. In the Filter Mode field, you can exclude from discovery a subset you specify in the Subnet Filter field. You can also narrow the scope of the subnet discovery by selecting Include and specifying only the subnets to include in discovery.
    Important: If you select Include without entering an IP address in the Subnet Filter field, the system does not discover any subnets.
  12. Click Update to save changes.
After the BIG-IP WOM system discovers a subnet and adds the route to the list, the system automatically optimizes traffic to any hosts in that subnet without rediscovery.

Verifying subnet discovery

After sending a client request from the local BIG-IP WOM to a server behind a remote BIG-IP WOM, you can perform this procedure to verify that the destination subnet is discovered.
  1. Using the browser interface on the client-side BIG-IP WOM, on the Main tab, click WAN Optimization > Remote Endpoints. The Remote Endpoints List screen opens.
  2. Verify that the status indicator is green, and the IP address is correct for the remote endpoint you are checking.
  3. On the menu bar, click Routes, and verify that the list includes the IP address of the destination subnet. This subnet is also displayed on the Advertised Routes List screen of the browser interface on the server-side BIG-IP WOM.

Adding advertised routes manually

An advertised route is a subnet that can be reached through the local endpoint. You can add advertised routes manually, for example, if you disabled the Discovery setting on the Quick Start screen.
  1. On the Main tab, expand WAN Optimization and click Advertised Routes.
  2. Click Create. The New Advertised Routes screen opens.
  3. In the Name field, type a name for a the subnet.
  4. In the Address field, type the IP address of the subnet.
  5. In the Netmask field, type the subnet mask.
  6. In the Label field, type a descriptive label to identify the subnet.
  7. For the Mode setting, specify whether traffic on the subnet is included in optimization. If you select Excluded, the local and remote endpoints exchange subnet configuration information, but traffic on this subnet is excluded from optimization.
    Note: You can define a subset of IP addresses to exclude from optimization within a larger included subnet. An excluded endpoint advertised route must be a valid address range subset of an included endpoint advertised route.
  8. Depending on how many advertised routes you want to add, click the appropriate button.
    Option Description
    Repeat Save this route and add more advertised routes.
    Finished You have finished adding advertised routes.
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