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Manual Chapter: Self IP Addresses
Manual Chapter
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A self IP address is an IP address on the BIG-IP® system that you associate with a VLAN, to access hosts in that VLAN. By virtue of its netmask, a self IP address represents an address space, that is, a range of IP addresses spanning the hosts in the VLAN, rather than a single host address. You can associate self IP addresses not only with VLANs, but also with VLAN groups.
First, when sending a message to a destination server, the BIG-IP system uses the self IP addresses of its VLANs to determine the specific VLAN in which a destination server resides. For example, if VLAN internal has a self IP address of 10.10.10.100, with a netmask of 255.255.255.0, and the destination servers IP address is 10.10.10.20 (with a netmask of 255.255.255.255), the BIG-IP system recognizes that the servers IP address falls within the range of VLAN internals self IP address, and therefore sends the message to that VLAN. More specifically, the BIG-IP system sends the message to the interface that you assigned to that VLAN. If more than one interface is assigned to the VLAN, the BIG-IP system takes additional steps to determine the correct interface, such as checking the Layer2 forwarding table.
Second, a self IP address can serve as the default route for each destination server in the corresponding VLAN. In this case, the self IP address of a VLAN appears as the destination IP address in the packet header when the server sends a response to the BIG-IP system.
You normally assign self IP addresses to a VLAN when you initially run the Setup utility on a BIG-IP system. More specifically, you assign one static self IP address and one floating self IP address to each of the default VLANs (internal and external). Later, using the Configuration utility, you can create self IP addresses for other VLANs that you create.
Self IP addresses reside in administrative partitions/folders and are associated with traffic groups. The self IP addresses that you create when you run the Setup utility reside in partition Common (that is folder /Common).
To configure and manage self IP addresses, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click Self IPs.
A static self IP address is an IP address that the BIG-IP system does not share with another BIG-IP system. Any self IP address that you assign to the default traffic group traffic-group-local-only is a static self IP address.
A floating self IP address is an IP address that two BIG-IP systems share. Any self IP address that you assign to the default traffic group traffic-group-1 is a floating self IP address.
For each self IP address that you create for a VLAN, the BIG-IP system automatically assigns a media access control (MAC) address. By default, the BIG-IP system assigns the same MAC address that is assigned to the lowest-numbered interface of the VLAN.
As an alternative, you can globally configure the BIG-IP system to assign the same MAC address to all VLANs. This feature is useful if your network includes a type of switch that does not keep a separate Layer 2 forwarding table for each VLAN on that switch.
To configure a global MAC address for VLANs, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, click Configuration, and click Local Traffic.
When you configure the BIG-IP system to manage local area traffic, you can implement a feature known as a secure network address translation (SNAT). A SNAT is an object that causes the BIG-IP system to translate the original source IP address of a packet to an IP address that you specify. A SNAT ensures that the target server sends its response back through the BIG-IP system rather than to the original client IP address directly.
When you create a SNAT, you can configure the BIG-IP system to automatically choose a translation address. This ability of the BIG-IP system to automatically choose a translation address is known as SNAT automapping, and in this case, the translation address that the system chooses is always an existing self IP address. Thus, for traffic going from the BIG-IP system to a destination server, configuring SNAT automapping ensures that the source IP address in the header of a packet is a self IP address.
When you create an automapped SNAT, the BIG-IP system actually creates a SNAT pool consisting of the systems internal self IP addresses, and then uses an algorithm to select and assign an address from that SNAT pool.
As stated previously, it is when you initially run the Setup utility on a BIG-IP system that you normally create any static and floating self IP addresses and assign them to VLANs. However, if you want to create additional self IP addresses later, you can do so using the Configuration utility.
Note: Only users with either the Administrator or Resource Administrator user role can create and manage self IP addresses.
As described in Introduction to self IP addresses, a self IP address, combined with a netmask, typically represents a range of host IP addresses in a VLAN. If you are assigning a self IP address to a VLAN group, the self IP address represents the range of self IP addresses assigned to the VLANs in that group.
When you specify a netmask for a self IP address, the self IP address can represent a range of IP addresses, rather than a single host address. For example, a self IP address of 10.0.0.100 can represent several host IP addresses if you specify a netmask of 255.255.0.0.
Assigning a self IP address to a VLAN
The self IP address that you assign to a VLAN should represent an address space that includes the self IP addresses of the hosts that the VLAN contains. For example, if the address of one destination server in a VLAN is 10.0.0.1 and the address of another server in the VLAN is 10.0.0.2, you could assign a self IP address of 10.0.0.100, with a netmask of 255.255.0.0, to the VLAN.
Assigning a self IP address to a VLAN group
The self IP address that you assign to a VLAN group should represent an address space that includes the self IP addresses of the VLANs that you assigned to the group. For example, if the self IP address of one VLAN in a VLAN group is 10.0.20.100 and the address of the other VLAN in a VLAN group is 10.0.30.100,you could assign an address of 10.0.0.100, with a netmask of 255.255.0.0, to the VLAN group.
The VLAN/Tunnel list in the BIG-IP Configuration utility displays the names of all existing VLANs and VLAN groups.
Each self IP address has a feature known as port lockdown. Port lockdown is a security feature that allows you to specify particular UDP and TCP protocols and services from which the self IP address can accept traffic. By default, a self IP address accepts traffic from these protocols and services:
If you do not want to use the default setting (Allow Default), you can configure port lockdown to allow either all UDP and TCP protocols and services (Allow All), no UDP protocols and services (Allow None), or only those that you specify (Allow Custom).
If you want the self IP address to be a floating IP address, that is, an address shared between two or more BIG-IP devices in a device group, you can assign a floating traffic group to the self IP address. A floating traffic group causes the self IP address to become a floating self IP address.
A floating self IP address ensures that application traffic reaches its destination. More specifically, a floating self IP address enables a source node to successfully send a request, and a destination node to successfully send a response, when the relevant BIG-IP device is unavailable.
If you want the self IP address to be a static (non-floating) IP address (used mostly for standalone devices), you can assign a non-floating traffic group to the self IP address. A non-floating traffic group causes the self IP address to become a non-floating self IP address. An example of a non-floating self IP address is the address that you assign to the default VLAN named HA, which is used strictly to process failover communications between BIG-IP devices, instead of processing application traffic.
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