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Manual Chapter: Configuring IPsec between a BIG-IP System and a Third-Party Device
Manual Chapter
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Overview: Configuring IPsec between a BIG-IP system and a third-party device

You can configure an IPsec tunnel when you want to use a protocol other than SSL to secure traffic that traverses a wide area network (WAN), from a BIG-IP system to third-party device. By following this process, you can configure an IKE peer to negotiate Phase 1 Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) security associations for the secure channel between two systems. You can also configure a custom traffic selector and a custom IPsec policy that use this secure channel to generate IPsec Tunnel mode (Phase 2) security associations (SAs).

This implementation describes the tasks for setting up the IPsec tunnel on the BIG-IP system. You must also configure the third-party device at the other end of the tunnel. For those instructions, refer to the manufacturer's documentation for your device.

Example of an IPsec configuration between a BIG-IP system and a third-party device Example of an IPsec tunnel between a BIG-IP system and a third-party device

About negotiation of security associations

The way to dynamically negotiate security associations is to configure the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol, which is included in the IPsec protocol suite. When you configure the IKE protocol, two IPsec tunnel endpoints (IKE peers) open a secure channel using an ISAKMP security association (ISAKMP-SA) to initially negotiate the exchange of peer-to-peer authentication data. This exchange is known as Phase 1 negotiation.

After Phase 1 is complete and the secure channel is established, Phase 2 negotiation begins, in which the IKE peers dynamically negotiate the authentication and encryption algorithms to use to secure the payload. Without IKE, the system cannot dynamically negotiate these security algorithms.

About IPsec Tunnel mode

Tunnel mode causes the IPsec protocol to encrypt the entire packet (the payload plus the IP header). This encrypted packet is then included as the payload in another outer packet with a new header. Traffic sent in this mode is more secure than traffic sent in Transport mode, because the original IP header is encrypted along with the original payload.

About BIG-IP components of the IPsec protocol suite

The IPsec protocol suite on the BIG-IP system consists of these configuration components:

IKE peers
An IKE peer is a configuration object of the IPsec protocol suite that represents a BIG-IP system on each side of the IPsec tunnel. IKE peers allow two systems to authenticate each other (known as IKE Phase 1). The BIG-IP system supports two versions of the IKE protocol: Version 1 (IKEv1) and Version 2 (IKEv2). The BIG-IP system includes the default IKE peer, named anonymous, which is configured to use Version 1.
Note: The BIG-IP system currently supports IKEv2 only in Tunnel mode, and does not support IPComp or NAT-T with IKEv2.
IPsec policies
An IPsec policy is a set of information that defines the specific IPsec protocol to use (ESP or AH), and the mode (Transport, Tunnel, or iSession). For Tunnel mode, the policy also specifies the endpoints for the tunnel, and for IKE Phase 2 negotiation, the policy specifies the security parameters to be used in that negotiation. The way that you configure the IPsec policy determines the way that the BIG-IP system manipulates the IP headers in the packets. The BIG-IP system includes two default IPsec policies, named default-ipsec-policy and default-ipsec-policy-isession. A common configuration includes a bidirectional policy on each BIG-IP system.
Traffic selectors
A traffic selector is a packet filter that defines what traffic should be handled by a IPsec policy. You define the traffic by source and destination IP addresses and port numbers. A common configuration includes a bidirectional traffic selector on each BIG-IP system.

Task summary

You can configure the IPsec and IKE protocols to secure traffic that traverses a wide area network (WAN), such as from one data center to another.

Before you begin configuring IPsec and IKE, verify that this module, system objects, and connectivity exist on the BIG-IP system:

BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager
This module directs traffic securely and efficiently to the appropriate destination on a network.
Self IP address
The BIG-IP system must have at least one self IP address, to be used in specifying the end of the IPsec tunnel.
The default VLANs
These VLANs are named external and internal.
BIG-IP connectivity
Verify the connectivity between the client or server and its BIG-IP device, and between the BIG-IP device and its gateway. For example, you can use ping to test this connectivity.

Task list

Creating a forwarding virtual server for IPsec

For IPsec, you create a forwarding virtual server to intercept IP traffic and direct it over the tunnel.
  1. On the Main tab, click Local Traffic > Virtual Servers. The Virtual Server List screen opens.
  2. Click the Create button. The New Virtual Server screen opens.
  3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the virtual server.
  4. From the Type list, select Forwarding (IP).
  5. In the Destination Address field, type a wildcard network address in CIDR format, such as 0.0.0.0/0 for IPv4 or ::/0 for IPv6, to accept any traffic.
  6. From the Service Port list, select *All Ports.
  7. From the Protocol list, select *All Protocols.
  8. From the VLAN and Tunnel Traffic list, retain the default selection, All VLANs and Tunnels.
  9. Click Finished.

Creating an IKE peer

The IKE peer object identifies to the system you are configuring the other device with which it communicates during Phase 1 negotiations. The IKE peer object also specifies the specific algorithms and credentials to be used for Phase 1 negotiation.

Important: You must also configure the device at the other end of the IPsec tunnel.
  1. On the Main tab, click Network > IPsec > IKE Peers.
  2. Click the Create button. The New IKE Peer screen opens.
  3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the IKE peer.
  4. In the Description field, type a brief description of the IKE peer.
  5. In the Remote Address field, type the IP address of the device that is remote to the system you are configuring. This address must match the value of the Tunnel Remote Address setting in the relevant IPsec policy.
  6. For the State setting, retain the default value, Enabled.
  7. For the IKE Phase 1 Algorithms area, retain the default values, or select the options that are appropriate for your deployment.
    Important: The values you select must match the IKE Phase 1 settings on the remote device.
    Setting Options
    Authentication Algorithm

    MD5

    SHA-1 (default)

    SHA-256

    SHA-384

    SHA-512

    Encryption Algorithm

    DES

    3 DES (default)

    BLOWFISH

    CAST128

    AES

    CAMELLIA

    Perfect Forward Secrecy

    MODP768

    MODP1024 (default)

    MODP1536

    MODP2048

    MODP3072

    MODP4096

    MODP6144

    MODP8192

    Lifetime Length of time, in minutes, before the IKE security association expires.
  8. In the IKE Phase 1 Credentials area, for the Authentication Method setting, select either RSA Signature or Preshared Key.
    • If you select RSA Signature (default), the Certificate, Key, and Verify Certificate settings are available. If you have your own certificate file, key file, and certificate authority (CA), F5 recommends, for security purposes, that you specify these files in the appropriate fields. To reveal all these fields, select the Verify Certificate check box. If you retain the default settings, leave the check box cleared.
      Important: If you select the check box, you must provide a certificate file, key, and certificate authority.
      Note: This option is available only for IKEv1.
    • If you select Preshared Key, type the key in the Preshared Key field that becomes available.
    Note: The key you type must be the same at both ends of the tunnel.
  9. For the Common Settings area, retain all default values.
  10. Click Finished. The screen refreshes and displays the new IKE peer in the list.
You now have an IKE peer defined for establishing a secure channel.

Creating a custom IPsec policy

You create a custom IPsec policy when you want to use a policy other than the default IPsec policy (default-ipsec-policy or default-ipsec-policy-isession). A typical reason for creating a custom IPsec policy is to configure IPsec to operate in Tunnel rather than Transport mode.

Important: You must also configure the device at the other end of the IPsec tunnel.
  1. On the Main tab, click Network > IPsec > IPsec Policies.
  2. Click the Create button. The New Policy screen opens.
  3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the policy.
  4. In the Description field, type a brief description of the policy.
  5. For the IPsec Protocol setting, retain the default selection, ESP.
  6. From the Mode list, select Tunnel. The screen refreshes to show additional related settings.
  7. In the Tunnel Local Address field, type the local IP address of the system you are configuring. For example, the tunnel local IP address for BIG-IP A is 2.2.2.2.
  8. In the Tunnel Remote Address field, type the IP address that is remote to the system you are configuring. This address must match the Remote Address setting for the relevant IKE peer. For example, the tunnel remote IP address configured on BIG-IP A is the IP address of Router B, which is 3.3.3.3.
  9. For the IKE Phase 2 area, retain the default values, or select the options that are appropriate for your deployment.
    Important: The values you select must match the IKE Phase 2 settings on the remote device.
    Setting Options
    Authentication Algorithm

    SHA-1

    AES-GCM128 (default)

    AES-GCM192

    AES-GCM256

    AES-GMAC128

    AES-GMAC192

    AES-GMAC256

    Encryption Algorithm

    AES-GCM128 (default)

    Perfect Forward Secrecy

    MODP768

    MODP1024 (default)

    MODP1536

    MODP2048

    MODP3072

    MODP4096

    MODP6144

    MODP8192

    Lifetime Length of time, in minutes, before the IKE security association expires.
  10. Click Finished. The screen refreshes and displays the new IPsec policy in the list.

Creating a bidirectional IPsec traffic selector

The traffic selector you create filters traffic based on the IP addresses and port numbers that you specify, as well as the custom IPsec policy you assign.
Important: You must also configure the device at the other end of the IPsec tunnel.
  1. On the Main tab, click Network > IPsec > Traffic Selectors.
  2. Click Create. The New Traffic Selector screen opens.
  3. In the Name field, type a unique name for the traffic selector.
  4. In the Description field, type a brief description of the traffic selector.
  5. For the Order setting, retain the default value (First). This setting specifies the order in which the traffic selector appears on the Traffic Selector List screen.
  6. From the Configuration list, select Advanced.
  7. For the Source IP Address setting, click Host or Network, and in the Address field, type an IP address. This IP address should be the host or network address from which the application traffic originates. This table shows sample source IP addresses for BIG-IP A and Router B.
    System Name Source IP Address
    BIG-IP A 1.1.1.0/24
    Router B 4.4.4.0/24
  8. From the Source Port list, select the source port for which you want to filter traffic, or retain the default value *All Ports.
  9. For the Destination IP Address setting, click Host, and in the Address field, type an IP address. This IP address should be the final host or network address to which the application traffic is destined. This table shows sample destination IP addresses for BIG-IP A and Router B.
    System Name Destination IP Address
    BIG-IP A 4.4.4.0/24
    Router B 1.1.1.0/24
  10. From the Destination Port list, select the destination port for which you want to filter traffic, or retain the default value * All Ports.
  11. From the Protocol list, select the protocol for which you want to filter traffic. You can select * All Protocols, TCP, UDP, ICMP, or Other. If you select Other, you must type a protocol name.
  12. From the Direction list, select Both.
  13. From the Action list, select Protect. The IPsec Policy Name setting appears.
  14. From the IPsec Policy Name list, select the name of the custom IPsec policy that you created.
  15. Click Finished. The screen refreshes and displays the new IPsec traffic selector in the list.

Verifying IPsec connectivity for Tunnel mode

After you have configured an IPsec tunnel and before you configure additional functionality, you can verify that the tunnel is passing traffic.

Note: Only data traffic matching the traffic selector triggers the establishment of the tunnel.
  1. Access the tmsh command-line utility.
  2. Before sending traffic, type this command at the prompt. tmsh modify net ipsec ike-daemon ikedaemon log-level info This command increases the logging level to display the INFO messages that you want to view.
  3. Send data traffic to the destination IP address specified in the traffic selector.
  4. For an IKEv1 configuration, check the IKE Phase 1 negotiation status by typing this command at the prompt. racoonctl -l show-sa isakmp This example shows a result of the command. Destination is the tunnel remote IP address. Destination Cookies ST S V E Created Phase2 165.160.15.20.500 98993e6 . . . 22c87f1 9 I 10 M 2012-06-27 16:51:19 1

    This table shows the legend for interpreting the result.

    Column Displayed Description
    ST (Tunnel Status) 1 Start Phase 1 negotiation
    2 msg 1 received
    3 msg 1 sent
    4 msg 2 received
    5 msg 2 sent
    6 msg 3 received
    7 msg 3 sent
    8 msg 4 received
    9 isakmp tunnel established
    10 isakmp tunnel expired
    S I Initiator
    R Responder
    V (Version Number) 10 ISAKMP version 1.0
    E (Exchange Mode) M Main (Identity Protection)
    A Aggressive
    Phase2 <n> Number of Phase 2 tunnels negotiated with this IKE peer
  5. For an IKEv1 configuration, check the IKE Phase 2 negotiation status by typing this command at the prompt. racoonctl -ll show-sa internal This example shows a result of this command. Source is the tunnel local IP address. Destination is the tunnel remote IP address. Source Destination Status Side 10.100.20.3 165.160.15.20 sa established [R]

    This table shows the legend for interpreting the result.

    Column Displayed
    Side I (Initiator)
    R (Responder)
    Status init
    start
    acquire
    getspi sent
    getspi done
    1st msg sent
    1st msg recvd
    commit bit
    sa added
    sa established
    sa expired
  6. To verify the establishment of dynamic negotiated Security Associations (SAs), type this command at the prompt. tmsh show net ipsec ipsec-sa For each tunnel, the output displays IP addresses for two IPsec SAs, one for each direction, as shown in the example. IPsec::SecurityAssociations 10.100.20.3 -> 165.160.15.20 SPI(0x7b438626) in esp (tmm: 6) 165.160.15.20 -> 10.100.20.3 SPI(0x5e52a1db) out esp (tmm: 5)
  7. To display the details of the dynamic negotiated Security Associations (SAs), type this command at the prompt. tmsh show net ipsec ipsec-sa all-properties For each tunnel, the output displays the details for the IPsec SAs, as shown in the example. IPsec::SecurityAssociations 165.160.15.20 -> 10.100.20.3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- tmm: 2 Direction: out; SPI: 0x6be3ff01(1810104065); ReqID: 0x9b0a(39690) Protocol: esp; Mode: tunnel; State: mature Authenticated Encryption : aes-gmac128 Current Usage: 307488 bytes Hard lifetime: 94 seconds; unlimited bytes Soft lifetime: 34 seconds; unlimited bytes Replay window size: 64 Last use: 12/13/2012:10:42 Create: 12/13/2012:10:39
  8. To display the details of the IKE-negotiated SAs (IKEv2), type this command at the prompt. tmsh show net ipsec ike-sa all-properties
  9. To filter the Security Associations (SAs) by traffic selector, type this command at the prompt. tmsh show net ipsec ipsec-sa traffic-selector ts_codec

    You can also filter by other parameters, such as SPI (spi), source address (src_addr), or destination address (dst_addr)

    The output displays the IPsec SAs that area associated with the traffic selector specified, as shown in the example. IPsec::SecurityAssociations 10.100.115.12 -> 10.100.15.132 SPI(0x2211c0a9) in esp (tmm: 0) 10.100.15.132 -> 10.100.115.12 SPI(0x932e0c44) out esp (tmm: 2)
  10. Check the IPsec stats by typing this command at the prompt. tmsh show net ipsec-stat If traffic is passing through the IPsec tunnel, the stats will increment. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Net::Ipsec Cmd Id Mode Packets In Bytes In Packets Out Bytes Out ------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 TRANSPORT 0 0 0 0 0 TRANSPORT 0 0 0 0 0 TUNNEL 0 0 0 0 0 TUNNEL 0 0 0 0 1 TUNNEL 353.9K 252.4M 24.9K 1.8M 2 TUNNEL 117.9K 41.0M 163.3K 12.4M
  11. If the SAs are established, but traffic is not passing, type one of these commands at the prompt.

    tmsh delete net ipsec ipsec-sa (IKEv1)

    tmsh delete net ipsec ike-sa (IKEv2)

    This action deletes the IPsec tunnels. Sending new traffic triggers SA negotiation and establishment.
  12. If traffic is still not passing, type this command at the prompt. racoonctl flush-sa isakmp This action brings down the control channel. Sending new traffic triggers SA negotiation and establishment.
  13. View the /var/log/racoon.log to verify that the IPsec tunnel is up. These lines are examples of the messages you are looking for. 2012-06-29 16:45:13: INFO: ISAKMP-SA established 10.100.20.3[500]-165.160.15.20[500] spi:3840191bd045fa51:673828cf6adc5c61 2012-06-29 16:45:14: INFO: initiate new phase 2 negotiation: 10.100.20.3[500]<=>165.160.15.20[500] 2012-06-29 16:45:14: INFO: IPsec-SA established: ESP/Tunnel 165.160.15.20[0]->10.100.20.3[0] spi=2403416622(0x8f413a2e) 2012-06-29 16:45:14: INFO: IPsec-SA established: ESP/Tunnel 10.100.20.3[0]->165.160.15.20[0] spi=4573766(0x45ca46
  14. To turn on IKEv2 logging on a production build, complete these steps.
    1. Configure the log publisher for IPsec to use. % tmsh create sys log-config publisher ipsec { destinations add { local-syslog }} % tmsh list sys log-config publisher ipsec sys log-config publisher ipsec { destinations { local-syslog { } } }
    2. Attach the log publisher to the ike-daemon object. tmsh modify net ipsec ike-daemon ikedaemon log-publisher ipsec
  15. For protocol-level troubleshooting, you can increase the debug level by typing this command at the prompt. tmsh modify net ipsec ike-daemon ikedaemon log-level debug2
    Important: Use this command only for debugging. It creates a large log file, and can slow the tunnel negotiation.
    Note: Using this command flushes existing SAs.
  16. After you view the results, return the debug level to normal to avoid excessive logging by typing this command at the prompt. tmsh modify net ipsec ike-daemon ikedaemon log-level info
    Note: Using this command flushes existing SAs.

Implementation result

You now have an IPsec tunnel for securing traffic that traverses the WAN, from one BIG-IP system to a third-party device.

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