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Manual Chapter: Setting Up a Global Traffic Manager Redundant System
Manual Chapter
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With the Global Traffic Manager, you manage incoming DNS traffic, forwarding that traffic to the appropriate DNS server or load balancing it to other resources on the network. Typically, a given network has several Global Traffic Managers, with at least one system installed at one of several data centers. With these systems in place, you can control the distribution of DNS traffic across your resources, monitor these resources to determine their availability, and ensure that any web-based applications have all the components necessary to operate successfully.
A standard implementation of Global Traffic Managers is a high-availability, or redundant, system configuration. A redundant system is a set of two Global Traffic Managers: one operating as the active unit, the other operating as the standby unit. If the active unit goes offline, the standby unit immediately assumes responsibility for managing DNS traffic. The new active unit remains active until another event occurs that would cause the unit to go offline, or you manually reset the status of each unit.
The implementation steps outlined in this chapter describe how to configure a Global Traffic Manager redundant system. This example focuses on the fictional company, SiteRequest. Table 9.1 outlines the network characteristics at SiteRequest that pertain to this implementation.
Host name: gtm1.siterequest.com
Self IP address: 10.1.1.20/24
Floating IP address: 10.1.1.50 (shared with second Global Traffic Manager)
Host name: gtm2.siterequest.com
Self IP address: 10.1.1.21/24
Floating IP address: 10.1.1.50 (shared with first Global Traffic Manager)
Name: dns_requests
Assigned interfaces: 1.1 (untagged)
IP address: 10.1.1.100
IP address: 192.168.5.15
For this example, SiteRequest already has both Global Traffic Managers connected to the network; however, they have not yet assigned their IP addresses and other configuration steps to them.
As detailed in Understanding Global Traffic Manager redundant systems, this implementation focuses on the fictional company SiteRequest. This company wants to create a Global Traffic Manager redundant system. They already have the systems installed on the network; however, they have yet to fully configure them.
The first step of creating a redundant system with two Global Traffic Managers is to configure the redundant system settings. These settings define each Global Traffic Manager as part of a redundant system. You configure two different systems: the active system, which is initially online, and the standby system, which comes online only when the active system goes offline.
Note: You can also complete the following steps by running the Setup Utility. You can access this utility through the main page of the Configuration utility of the Global Traffic Manager.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click Platform.
The Platform screen opens.
2.
From the High Availability list, select Redundant Pair.
A new option, Unit ID, displays on the screen.
3.
From the Unit ID list, select 1.
4.
Click the Update button to save your changes.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click Platform.
The Platform screen opens.
2.
From the High Availability list, select Redundant Pair.
A new option, Unit ID, displays on the screen.
3.
From the Unit ID list, select 2.
4.
Click the Update button to save your changes.
The next step in this implementation requires you to set up a VLAN. This VLAN encompasses the IP addresses associated with the Global Traffic Managers and the other network components that help manage DNS traffic.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Network and then click VLANs.
The main VLANs screen opens.
2.
Click the Create button.
The Create VLAN screen opens.
3.
In the Name box, type dns_requests.
4.
For the Interfaces setting, use the Move buttons to assign the interface 1.1 to the Untagged list.
5.
Click the Finished button to save your changes.
With a VLAN in place, you can now assign self IP addresses to each Global Traffic Manager. These self IP addresses identify the Global Traffic Manager on the network.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Network and then click Self IPs.
The main self IP address screen opens.
2.
Click the Create button.
The Create Self IP Addresses screen opens.
3.
In the IP address box, type the IP address of the system.
For this example, type one of the following:
For gtm1.siterequest.com, type 10.1.1.20
For gtm2.siterequest.com, type 10.1.1.21
4.
In the Netmask box, type the appropriate net mask.
For this example, 255.255.255.0.
5.
Click the Finished button to save your changes.
In a redundant system, both Global Traffic Managers share a common IP address called a floating IP address. A floating IP address is an IP address that represents both the active and standby units in a redundant system.To the rest of the network, this floating IP address represents the active Global Traffic Manager. If the primary unit goes offline, the secondary unit takes over traffic destined for the floating IP address. This setup ensures that DNS traffic flows smoothly even in the event a fail-over occurs.
For these steps, you need only configure the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Network and then click Self IPs.
The main self IP address screen opens.
2.
Click the Create button.
The Create Self IP Addresses screen opens.
3.
In the IP address box, type the IP address of the system.
For this example, type 10.1.1.50.
4.
In the Netmask box, type the appropriate net mask.
For this example, 255.255.255.0.
5.
Check the Floating IP option.
6.
Click the Finished button to save your changes.
Many of the options associated with creating a redundant system reside in the High Availability section of the Configuration utility. These options include the IP addresses of each system, the type of redundant system, and other options.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click High Availability.
The High Availability screen opens.
2.
In the Primary Failover Address option, type the following:
In the Self box, type the IP address of the system you are currently configuring.
In this example, type 10.1.1.20.
In the Peer box, type the IP address of the system that makes up the second part of this redundant system.
For this example, type 10.1.1.21.
Note: In this example, for the gtm2.siterequest.com, reverse the location of these two IP addresses.
The next step of this process requires you to define an NTP server that both Global Traffic Managers use during synchronization options. This step is important because it determines a common time value for both systems. During file synchronizations, the systems use this time value to see if any newer configuration files exist.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click General Properties.
The General properties screen appears.
2.
From the Device menu, choose NTP.
The NTP screen appears.
3.
In the Address box, type the IP address of the NTP server.
In this example, 192.168.5.15.
4.
Click the Add button to add the NTP server to your configuration.
The time server appears as an entry in the Time Server List.
5.
Click the Update button to save your changes.
Another task you must accomplish is defining the default gateway route for network traffic. The Global Traffic Manager uses this route to send and receive network traffic.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Network and then click Routes.
The main routes screen opens.
2.
Click the Add button.
The New Route screen opens.
3.
From the Type list, select Default Gateway.
4.
From the Resource option, select Use Gateway and then type the IP address of default gateway.
In this example, type 10.1.1.100.
5.
Click the Finished button.
The Global Traffic Manager employs a listener to identify the DNS traffic for which it is responsible. In this implementation, you need to create a listener that corresponds to the floating IP address shared between the two Global Traffic Managers.
For these steps, you need only configure the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Global Traffic and then click Listeners.
The main listeners screen opens.
2.
Click the Create button.
The new listener screen opens.
3.
In the Destination box, type the IP address on which the system will listen for traffic.
In this example, type 10.1.1.50.
4.
From the VLAN Traffic list, select All VLANs.
5.
Click the Finished button to save the new listener.
If you are familiar with Global Traffic Manager, you might be familiar with its synchronization feature. This feature ensures that all Global Traffic Managers share the same information on wide IPs, pools, and other network configurations associated with DNS traffic management.
For a redundant system, you must employ an additional synchronization option to share the self IP address, default route, and other information you configured on the active system with the standby system.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click High Availability.
The High Availability screen opens.
2.
On the menu bar, click Config Sync.
The Config Sync screen opens.
3.
Click the Synchronize TO Peer button to start the configuration synchronization process.
The system proceeds to synchronize settings to the standby Global Traffic Manager; In this example, gtm1.siterequest.com. After the process completes, a screen appears informing you of the settings transferred to the standby unit.
4.
Click the OK button to exit the Config Sync screen.
The next task is to define the data centers in the Global Traffic Manager. Data centers are important entities within the Global Traffic Manager; you cannot add other entities, such as server, without them.
For these steps, you need only configure the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Global Traffic and then click Data Centers.
The main screen for data centers opens.
2.
Click the Create button.
The New Data Center screen opens.
3.
In the Name box, type the name of the data center.
In this example, type New York Data Center.
4.
In the Location box, type the location of the data center.
For this example, type New York, NY.
5.
From the State option, select Enabled.
6.
Click the Finished button to save the new data center.
At installation, a Global Traffic Manager has no knowledge of itself. To have the Global Traffic Manager communicate and operate with other systems, you must define it within the user interface. For this example, you need to define both gtm1.siterequest.com and gtm2.siterequest.com.
For these steps, you need only configure the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Global Traffic and then click Servers.
The main screen for servers opens.
2.
Click the Create button.
The New Server screen opens.
3.
In the Name box, type the name of the system.
In this example, type gtm1.siterequest.com.
4.
From the Product list, select BIG-IP System (Redundant).
5.
For the Address List setting, complete the following tasks:
In the Address box, type the IP address of the system.
In this example, type 10.1.1.20.
Click the Add button.
6.
For the Peer Address List setting, complete the following tasks:
In the Address box, type the IP address of the second system.
For this example, type 10.1.1.21.
Click the Add button.
7.
From the Data Center list, select a data center.
In this example, select New York Data Center.
8.
From the Virtual Server Discovery list, select Disabled.
9.
Click the Create button to create the server object that defines the BIG-IP redundant systems.
You now repeat these steps on the second Global Traffic Manager, reversing the IP addresses in the Address List and Peer Address List options. In this example, you repeat these steps for the gtm2.siterequest.com system.
For the next step, you need to enable the synchronization options and assign an appropriate name for the synchronization group. For this solution, the synchronization group name is North America.
For these steps, you need only configure the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click General Properties.
The General properties screen opens.
2.
From the Global Traffic menu, choose General.
The general global properties screen opens.
3.
Check the Synchronization check box.
4.
Check the Synchronize DNS Zone Files check box.
5.
In the Synchronization Group Name box, type the name of the synchronization group.
In this example, type North America.
6.
Click the Update button to save your changes.
Next, you need to have the two systems share the same configuration. (For this example, that means you need to have the Global Traffic Manager in Los Angeles acquire the configurations established at the New York data center.) You must do this before you attempt to synchronize these systems; otherwise, you run the risk of having the new Global Traffic Manager, which is unconfigured, replace the configuration of older systems. To acquire the configuration files, you run the gtm_add script.
Note: You must run the gtm_add script from the currently unconfigured Global Traffic Manager.
1.
Log into the unconfigured Global Traffic Manager.
In this example, log into gtn2.siterequest.com.
2.
At the command prompt, type gtm_add.
A prompt appears, describing what the gtm_add script does and asking if you are sure you want to run the process.
3.
Press the y key to start the gtm_add script.
The script then prompts you for the IP address of the system from which you want to acquire configuration settings.
5.
Press Enter.
The gtm_add process begins, acquiring configuration data from the active Global Traffic Manager; In this example gtn1.sitequrest.com. Once the process completes, you have successfully created a redundant system consisting of two Global Traffic Managers.
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