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Manual Chapter: Setting Up a Global Traffic Manager Redundant System Configuration
Manual Chapter
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With the BIG-IP® Global Traffic Manager, you manage incoming DNS traffic, forwarding that traffic to the appropriate DNS server or load balancing it to other resources on the network. Typically, a given network has several Global Traffic Manager systems, with at least one system installed at one of several data centers. With these systems in place, you can control the distribution of DNS traffic across your resources, monitor these resources to determine their availability, and ensure that any web-based applications have all the components necessary to operate successfully.
A standard implementation of Global Traffic Manager systems is a redundant system configuration. This is a set of two Global Traffic Manager systems: one operating as the active unit, the other operating as the standby unit. If the active unit goes offline, the standby unit immediately assumes responsibility for managing DNS traffic. The new active unit remains active until another event occurs that would cause the unit to go offline, or you manually reset the status of each unit.
The implementation tasks outlined in this chapter describe how to configure a Global Traffic Manager redundant system. This example focuses on the fictional company, SiteRequest. Table 9.1 outlines the network characteristics at SiteRequest that pertain to this implementation.
Host name: gtm1.siterequest.com
Self IP address: 10.1.1.20/24
Floating IP address: 10.1.1.50 (shared with second Global Traffic Manager)
Host name: gtm2.siterequest.com
Self IP address: 10.1.1.21/24
Floating IP address: 10.1.1.50 (shared with first Global Traffic Manager)
Name: dns_requests
Assigned interfaces: 1.1 (untagged)
IP address: 10.1.1.100
IP address: 192.168.5.15
For this example, SiteRequest already has both Global Traffic Manager systems connected to the network; however, they have not yet assigned IP addresses to the systems.
This implementation focuses on the fictional company SiteRequest. This company wants to create a Global Traffic Manager redundant system configuration. They already have the systems installed on the network; however, they have yet to fully configure them.
The first task in creating a redundant system configuration with two Global Traffic Manager systems is to configure the redundant system settings. You configure two different systems: the active system, which is initially online, and the standby system, which comes online only when the active system goes offline.
Note: You can also complete the following procedure by running the Setup Utility. You can access this utility through the main page of the Configuration utility of the Global Traffic Manager.
1.
2.
From the High Availability list, select Redundant Pair.
3.
From the Unit ID list, select 1.
4.
Click Update.
1.
2.
From the High Availability list, select Redundant Pair.
3.
From the Unit ID list, select 2.
4.
Click Update.
The next task in this implementation requires you to set up a VLAN. This VLAN encompasses the IP addresses associated with the Global Traffic Manager systems and the other network components that help manage DNS traffic.
1.
2.
Click Create.
3.
In the Name box, type dns_requests.
4.
For the Interfaces setting, use the Move buttons to assign interface 1.1 to the Untagged list.
5.
Click Finished.
With VLANs in place, you can now assign self IP addresses to each Global Traffic Manager. These self IP addresses identify the Global Traffic Manager on the network.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Network and then click Self IPs.
2.
Click Create.
3.
In the IP address box, type a self IP address to assign to the VLAN for DNS requests.
For this example, type one of the following:
For gtm1.siterequest.com, type 10.1.1.20
For gtm2.siterequest.com, type 10.1.1.21
4.
In the Netmask box, type the appropriate net mask.
For this example, 255.255.255.0.
5.
From the VLAN list, select VLAN dns_requests.
6.
Click Finished.
In a redundant system configuration, both Global Traffic Manager systems share a common IP address called a floating IP address. A floating IP address is an IP address that represents both the active and standby units in a redundant system. To the rest of the network, this floating IP address represents the active Global Traffic Manager. If the primary unit goes offline, the secondary unit takes over traffic destined for the floating IP address. This setup ensures that DNS traffic flows smoothly even in the event a fail-over occurs.
For this task, you configure only the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Network and then click Self IPs.
2.
Click Create.
3.
In the IP address box, type the IP address of the system.
For this example, type 10.1.1.50.
4.
In the Netmask box, type the appropriate net mask.
For this example, 255.255.255.0.
5.
From the VLAN list, select VLAN dns_requests.
6.
Check the Floating IP option.
7.
Click Finished.
Many of the options associated with creating a redundant system reside in the High Availability section of the Configuration utility. These options include the IP addresses of each system, the type of redundant system configuration, and other options.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click High Availability.
2.
On the menu bar, click Network Failover.
3.
Click the Network Failover box.
4.
In the Peer Management Address box, delete the colons (::) and type the management IP address of the peer unit.
For this example, type 192.168.15.17.
5.
For the Unicast setting, add an entry:
a)
In the Configuration Identifier box, type a unique name for the unicast entry.
For this example, type DNS requests.
b)
In the Local Address box, type the self IP address associated with the failover VLAN you created on the unit you are configuring.
For this example, type 10.1.1.20.
c)
In the Remote Address box, type the self IP address associated with the failover VLAN you created on the peer unit.
In this example, type 10.1.1.21.
d)
Click Add.
Note: In this example, for the gtm2.siterequest.com, use 192.168.15.16 for the Peer Management Address, and reverse the values of the Local Address and Remote Address settings.
The next task of this implementation requires you to define an NTP server that both Global Traffic Manager systems use during synchronization options. This task is important because it determines a common time value for both systems. During file synchronizations, the systems use this time value to see if any newer configuration files exist.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click Configuration.
3.
In the Address box, type the IP address of the NTP server.
In this example, 192.168.5.15.
4.
Click Add.
5.
Click Update.
Another task you must accomplish is defining the default gateway route for network traffic. The Global Traffic Manager uses this route to send and receive network traffic.
1.
2.
Click Add.
3.
From the Type list, select Default Gateway.
4.
From the Resource list, select Use Gateway and then type the IP address of default gateway.
In this example, type 10.1.1.100.
5.
Click Finished.
The Global Traffic Manager employs a listener to identify the DNS traffic for which it is responsible. In this implementation, you need to create a listener that corresponds to the floating IP address shared between the two Global Traffic Manager systems.
For this task, you configure only the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Global Traffic and then click Listeners.
2.
Click Create.
3.
In the Destination box, type the IP address on which the system will listen for traffic.
In this example, type 10.1.1.50.
4.
From the VLAN Traffic list, select All VLANs.
5.
Click Finished.
If you are familiar with Global Traffic Manager, you might be familiar with its synchronization feature. This feature ensures that all Global Traffic Manager systems share the same information on wide IPs, pools, and other network configurations associated with DNS traffic management.
For a redundant system, you must employ an additional synchronization option to share the self IP address, default route, and other information you configured on the active system with the standby system.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System and then click High Availability.
2.
3.
Click Synchronize TO Peer.
The system synchronizes settings to the standby Global Traffic Manager; in this example, gtm1.siterequest.com.
4.
The next task is to define the data centers in the Global Traffic Manager. Data centers are important entities within the Global Traffic Manager; you cannot add other entities, such as server, without them.
For this task, you configure only the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Global Traffic and then click Data Centers.
2.
Click Create.
3.
In the Name box, type the name of the data center.
In this example, type New York Data Center.
4.
In the Location box, type the location of the data center.
For this example, type New York, NY.
5.
From the State list, select Enabled.
6.
Click Finished.
At installation, a Global Traffic Manager has no knowledge of itself. To have the Global Traffic Manager communicate and operate with other systems, you must define it within the user interface. For this example, you need to define both gtm1.siterequest.com and gtm2.siterequest.com.
For this task, you configure only the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand Global Traffic and then click Servers.
2.
Click Create.
3.
In the Name box, type the name of the system.
In this example, type gtm1.siterequest.com.
4.
From the Product list, select BIG-IP System (Redundant).
5.
For the Address List setting, complete the following tasks:
In the Address box, type the IP address of the system.
In this example, type 10.1.1.20.
Click Add.
6.
For the Peer Address List setting, complete the following tasks:
In the Address box, type the IP address of the second system.
For this example, type 10.1.1.21.
Click Add.
7.
From the Data Center list, select a data center.
In this example, select New York Data Center.
8.
From the Virtual Server Discovery list, select Disabled.
9.
Click Create.
You now repeat this procedure on the second Global Traffic Manager, reversing the IP addresses in the Address List and Peer Address List options. In this example, you repeat this procedure for the gtm2.siterequest.com system.
For the next task, you enable the synchronization options and assign an appropriate name for the synchronization group. For this implementation, the synchronization group name is North America.
For this task, you configure only the active system. The settings you create are transferred to the standby system during a synchronization that you initiate later in this process.
1.
On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System, and then click Configuration.
3.
Check the Synchronization check box.
4.
Check the Synchronize DNS Zone Files check box.
5.
In the Synchronization Group Name box, type the name of the synchronization group.
In this example, type North America.
6.
Click Update.
Next, you need to have the two systems share the same configuration. (For this example, that means you need to have the Global Traffic Manager in Los Angeles acquire the configurations established at the New York data center.) You must do this before you attempt to synchronize these systems; otherwise, you run the risk of having the new Global Traffic Manager, which is unconfigured, replace the configuration of older systems. To acquire the configuration files, you run the gtm_add script.
Note: You must run the gtm_add script from the currently unconfigured Global Traffic Manager.
1.
Log on to the unconfigured Global Traffic Manager.
In this example, log on to gtn2.siterequest.com.
3.
Press the y key to start the gtm_add script.
5.
Press Enter.
The gtm_add process begins, acquiring configuration data from the active Global Traffic Manager; In this example gtn1.sitequrest.com. Once the process completes, you have successfully created a redundant system consisting of two Global Traffic Manager systems.
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