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Archived Manual Chapter: Configuring Interfaces Routes and System
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The interfaces on a WANJet® appliance are the physical ports that you use to connect the WANJet appliance to other devices on the network. Through its interfaces, the WANJet appliance can forward traffic to or from other network devices.
LAN: Connects to the local area network.
WAN: Connects through the wide area network to other offices.
Peer: Connects to a second WANJet appliance that is part of a redundant WAN router setup.
Management: Connects to a management network to separate administrative traffic from production data.
The LAN, WAN, and Peer interfaces on the WANJet appliance each have unique properties, such as media access control (MAC) address, state, media speed, media type, duplex mode, and flow control settings. On the Network Interfaces screen, you can view all of the properties, and configure the state (Enabled or Disabled), media type, and flow control of the LAN, WAN, and Peer interfaces.
The Management interface (called the Management port) is not listed on the Network Interfaces or Statistics screens. You typically configure the Management port when initially setting up the WANJet appliance (using the LCD or Setup utility), and can change its configuration on the System Platform screen. After it is configured, you log on to the WANJet appliance using the IP address of the Management port. For more information on the Management port, see Configuring the Management port, host name, host IP address, and time zone.
UP: the interface is operational and able to pass data.
DOWN: the interface is not operational; this could happen if the interface is disconnected, if either the LAN or WAN interface is disabled (the other one goes down), or if a hardware failure occurred.
DISABLED: the interface is disabled.
This information is useful when you want to assess the way that a particular interface is forwarding traffic. For example, you can use this information to determine the speed at which an interface is currently operating.
In the navigation pane, expand Network, and click Interfaces. This displays a list of the interfaces on the WANJet appliance, along with their status and related information.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand Network, and click Interfaces.
The Interface List screen opens and displays the list of interfaces on the WANJet appliance.
2.
Click an interface name in the list.
The Interface Properties screen opens and displays the properties of that interface.
You can enable or disable the LAN, WAN, and Peer interfaces, change the interface speed and duplex setting, and change the flow control. The WANJet appliance supports both half-duplex and full-duplex data transmission at various speeds on the interfaces.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand Network, and click Interfaces.
The Interface List screen opens and displays the list of interfaces on the WANJet appliance.
3.
Click Enable or Disable.
Note: If you disable either the LAN or WAN interface, the status of the one you disabled changes to DISABLED, and the other one changes to DOWN.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand Network, and click Interfaces.
The Interface List screen opens and displays the list of interfaces on the WANJet appliance.
2.
Click an interface name in the list.
The Interface Properties screen opens and displays the properties of that interface.
Change the State setting to Enabled or Disabled, as needed. The default value is Enabled.
From the Requested Media list, select the interface speed and duplex setting for the interface. The default setting is auto, for automatic detection.
From the Flow Control list, select the setting that specifies how the interface handles pause frames for flow control.
4.
Click Update.
You can either enable or disable an interface on the WANJet appliance, by configuring the State property. By default, each interface is set to Enabled, where it can allow incoming or outgoing traffic. When you set the state to Disabled, the interface cannot accept any traffic.
You can configure the Requested Media property to specify the media type and duplex mode of the LAN, WAN, or Peer interface cards, or you can use the default auto value to allow the interface to automatically negotiate the correct setting. The values that you can choose are: auto, 10baseT full, 10baseT half, 100baseTX full, 100baseTX half, and 1000baseT full, and 1000baseT half.
For the LAN interface, the interface speed and duplex settings apply to the link between the LAN switch and the WANJet appliance. For the WAN interface, the interface speed and duplex settings apply to the link between the WAN router and the WANJet appliance.
The default setting for this property is auto. If the media type is set to auto and the card does not support auto-detection, the default type for that interface is used, for example 1000BaseT half.
Full duplex mode means that traffic on that interface can travel in both directions simultaneously, while half duplex mode means that traffic on that interface can only travel in one direction at any given time. Note that if you want the interface to be part of a trunk, the media type must be set to one with full duplex mode.
If the media type of the interface does not allow the duplex mode to be set, this is indicated by an on-screen message. If setting the duplex mode is not supported for the interface, the duplex setting is not saved in the configuration file.
You can configure the Flow Control property to manage the way that an interface handles pause frames for flow control. Pause frames are frames that an interface sends to a peer interface as a way to control frame transmission from that peer interface. Pausing a peers frame transmissions prevents an interfaces First-in, First-out (FIFO) queue from filling up and resulting in a loss of data. Possible values for this property are described in Table 9.1
Specifies that the interface honors pause frames from its peer, and also generates pause frames when necessary. This is the default value.
Specifies that the interface ignores pause frames from its peer, and generates pause frames when necessary.
Specifies that the interface honors pause frames from its peer, but does not generate pause frames.
You can display statistics about the data interfaces on the WANJet appliance. Figure 9.1 shows an example of the interface statistics you might see on one WANJet appliance of a pair set up to optimize traffic over a WAN. You can see that the WANJet appliance is not part of a redundant pair because the Peer port is not operating (its status is UNINITIALIZED).
1.
In the navigation pane, expand Network, and click Statistics.
The interface statistics screen opens and displays statistics for the data interfaces on the WANJet appliance.
2.
For the Data Format setting, retain the default value (Normalized), or select Unformatted from the list.
3.
For the Auto Refresh setting, retain the default value of Disabled, or select an automatic refresh interval from the list.
Note: Setting the Auto Refresh value to a short interval could impact system performance.
The WANJet appliance must communicate with other routers, servers, and firewalls in a networked environment. Before you put the WANJet appliance into production, we recommend that you carefully review the router and server configurations in your network. By doing so, you can properly configure routing on the WANJet appliance, and you can adjust the routing configurations on other network devices to include WANJet appliance IP addresses.
Due to the need to process both user application traffic (for optimization) and administrative traffic (or out-of-band management), the WANJet appliance has two routing tables:
The management routing table contains information about routes that the WANJet appliance uses to forward traffic (administrative) through the Management port.
The data routing table is the main TMM routing table, which contains IP routing information about data routes. Data routes (also called TMM switch routes) are routes that the WANJet appliance uses to forward traffic (data) through the LAN and WAN interfaces.
You can manage the static or management routes defined in the WANJet appliances routing tables. Specifically, you can:
Note: Only users with an Administrator user role can create and manage routes on the WANJet appliance.
You can view the lists of data or management routes on the WANJet appliance. The lists automatically include the WAN gateway or management route (gateway) that you specified when you initially configured the WANJet appliance. Its destination is shown as Default IPv4.
If your network configuration includes a LAN router and you specify it on the Local WANJet screen, the WANJet appliance automatically creates a static route to it for each remote WANJet appliance that is configured on this system.
In the navigation pane, expand Network and click Routes. The Route List opens and displays the default gateway, static routes to the LAN router (if you have specified a LAN router) from remote WANJet appliances configured on the system, and any static routes that you added on the system.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand System, and click Configuration.
The General Configuration screen opens.
2.
On the menu bar, click Management Routes.
The Management Routes screen opens and displays the default management gateway and any other management routes that you added to the system.
You add a static or management route to ensure that the WANJet appliance can locate subnets that may be inaccessible through the default gateway. You also add routes if you want to override the default network pathway. For example, you may need to add management routes so the WANJet appliance can access an SNMP server for SNMP traps, or an email server to send email alerts.
The default WAN and management gateways are automatically added to the lists. Therefore, you do not need to add them unless they were deleted by mistake.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand Network, and click Routes.
The Routes List screen opens.
Note: If the Add button is unavailable, you do not have permission to add a route. You must have the Administrator role assigned to your user account.
3.
From the Type list, select Route.
4.
In the Destination box, type a destination IP address.
5.
In the Netmask box, type the netmask for the IP address you typed in the Destination box.
6.
For the Resource property, select one of the following options:
Use Gateway, and type the IP address to override the default gateway.
Reject, if you want to drop all packets sent to a particular IP address.
7.
Click Finished.
The new route is added to the route list.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand System, and click Configuration.
The General Configuration screen opens.
2.
On the menu bar, click Management Routes.
The Management Routes screen opens.
Note: If the Add button is unavailable, you do not have permission to add a route. You must have the Administrator role assigned to your user account.
4.
From the Type list, select Route.
5.
In the Destination box, type a destination IP address.
6.
In the Netmask box, type the netmask for the IP address you typed in the Destination box.
7.
For the Resource property, select one of the following options:
Use Gateway, and type the IP address to override the default gateway.
Reject, if you want to drop all packets sent to a particular IP address.
8.
Click Finished.
The new route is added to the route list.
You can modify the Resource setting of data or management routes in the routes lists. You cannot modify other properties of the route.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand Network, and click Routes.
This displays the current list of static routes.
3.
For the Resource property, select one of the following options:
Use Gateway and type the IP address.
Reject if you want to drop all packets sent to a particular IP address or subnet.
4.
Click Update.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand System, and click Configuration.
The General Configuration screen opens.
2.
On the menu bar, click Management Routes.
The Management Routes screen opens.
3.
In the Destination column, click the management route you want to change.
The Properties screen for the management route opens.
4.
For the Resource property, select one of the following options:
Use Gateway and type the IP address.
Reject if you want to drop all packets sent to a particular IP address or subnet.
5.
Click Update.
When the routers or destination hosts on your network change for any reason, you may need to delete routes (thereby deleting static entries from the data routing table or management routes from the management routing table). For example, removing a specific host or router from the network might invalidate a destination or gateway address of one of the routes, making the route no longer needed.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand Network and click Routes.
A list of the static entries in the routing table appears.
3.
Click Delete.
A Confirm Delete message opens.
4.
Click Delete.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand System, and click Configuration.
The General Configuration screen opens.
2.
On the menu bar, click Management Routes.
The Management Routes screen opens.
4.
Click Delete.
A Confirm Delete message opens.
5.
Click Delete.
The WANJet appliance includes several services that you can start or stop. Also known as daemons, services perform a variety of functions, such as implementing WAN optimization, handling messaging and configuration data, keeping the time synchronized with an external time server, and handling failure of system services.
Services also log events. Thus, some of the logs display, for each message, the service that reported the event. The logs that show service names are the System log and the Local Traffic log.
You can think of services as belonging to two categories: core services, which start up when you boot the WANJet appliance and run continually, and optional services, which are not essential for basic operation.
Important: You must have an Administrator user role assigned to your user account to stop, start, or restart a service.
The WANJet appliance starts a number of services at boot time, and they remain running as long as the WANJet appliance is operational. Most of these services are essential to the basic operation of the system, and you do not need to monitor them. It is useful to have a basic understanding of the core services listed in Table 9.2.
Table 9.2 Core services 
Establishes a connection between the local and remote WANJet appliances, handles authentication, exchanging configuration and link up information.
Optimizes traffic by reducing bandwidth and latency and communicates with remote WANJet appliances.
Known as the Master Control Program Daemon, controls messaging and configuration.
Cannot manage traffic; cannot retrieve or update system status; users cannot reconfigure system; disables some of the other services.
Controls high availability management of system services in case of heartbeat failure.
You rarely ever need to stop a core service from running. (The TMM service is a possible exception.) For this reason, you cannot use the Configuration utility to start or stop a core service. If you want to explicitly stop or start a core service, you use the bigstart command line utility. For information on the bigstart utility, see the bigstart man page. For information on stopping the TMM service, see TMM service.
System services have heartbeats. A service heartbeat is a recurring signal that a service generates. The WANJet appliance continually monitors service heartbeats to determine whether the service is still running. For some services, if the system does not detect a heartbeat, the system takes some action with respect to failover. These services are:
You can control how the WANJet appliance behaves when it detects a heartbeat failure for a service. For example, you can configure the CentralManager service so that if its heartbeat is undetected, the WANJet appliance automatically restarts the CentralManager.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand System, and click High Availability.
The System Services list opens.
3.
For the Heartbeat Failure setting, select the action that you want the system to take if the heartbeat for this service is not detected:
Restart: Specifies that the system restarts this system service.
Restart All: Specifies that the system restarts all system services.
Reboot: Specifies that the system reboots when this service fails.
No Action: Specifies that the system takes no action.
4.
Click Finished.
The core services CentralManager, GenericProxy, MCPD, TMM, and SOD are important because they support key functions of the WANJet appliance. These services run automatically unless you specifically shut them down. They provide essential functions such as authenticating and communicating with remote WANJet appliances, optimizing traffic, maintaining configuration data, and passing traffic through data interfaces.
The CentralManager and GenericProxy support WAN optimization exclusively, whereas the other services MCPD, TMM, and SOD operate on other TMOS-based systems as well, such as BIG-IP® systems.
The CentralManager is a service that handles communication between local and remote WANJet appliances. Specifically, the CentralManager is responsible for these major tasks:
The CentralManager service listens for incoming connections from other CentralManagers on the CentralManager listening port, which defaults to port 3701.
The CentralManager service periodically attempts to initiate communication with remote WANJet appliances when they are not already in communication.
The CentralManager service periodically verifies the ability to communicate with remote WANJet appliances on an ongoing basis.
Communicating using Linux message queues with other services, such as GenericProxy and udpproxy, on the same WANJet appliance. This includes notifying other services when the Link Up/Down status of a remote WANJet appliance changes. Link Up and Link Down are defined as follows:
Link Up: A link to a remote WANJet appliance is considered up for a particular service when communications are established between the CentralManager processes on the two WANJet appliances, configuration information has been exchanged, and the service is up and ready to operate on both WANJet appliances.
Link Down: A link to a remote WANJet appliance is considered down for a particular service when the service is down at either or both ends, or when the CentralManager considers the communications with the CentralManager at the remote WANJet appliance to be down, or when the service itself has detected a failure that requires the link to go down so that some recovery may take place.
The GenericProxy service optimizes traffic between paired WANJet appliances. It is responsible for these major tasks:
Optimizing traffic by proxying that traffic over connections, called tunnels, between the GenericProxy services on a pair of WANJet appliances. GenericProxy optimizes traffic by reducing required bandwidth using TDR-1 and TDR-2 technology and reducing latency.
Achieving these optimizations. The GenericProxy must communicate with the counterpart GenericProxy service on each remote WANJet appliance, as follows:
All GenericProxy services listen for incoming connections from other GenericProxy services on the GenericProxy listening port, which is defined as one greater than the CentralManager listening port, which defaults to port 3702 when the CentralManager listening port is port 3701 (the default).
The GenericProxy service initiates and establishes communications with GenericProxy services on remote WANJet appliances after receiving Link Up indications from the CentralManager service.
As part of the process of initializing and establishing communications, the GenericProxy service manages the recovery and resynchronization of the TDR-2 cache.
The GenericProxy service terminates communications with GenericProxy services on remote WANJet appliances after receiving Link Down indications from the CentralManager service, or when it encounters certain errors.
The Master Control Program Daemon (MCPD) manages the configurations on a WANJet appliance. MCPD performs the following tasks:
Receives and processes configuration change requests, validates configuration change requests, and updates storage for the target configuration. The service also returns success or failure results to clients.
The Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) service performs traffic management. As such, the TMM service supports all system and networking components that the WANJet appliance needs to process application and administrative traffic. The TMM service controls the LAN, WAN, and Peer interfaces, but not the Management port.
The TMM service affects the type of interface (TMM switch interface or Management port) that the WANJet appliance uses for network traffic. The effect on the use of interfaces differs depending on the type of traffic. Normally, when the TMM service is running, certain types of network traffic use the Management port, while other types of traffic use the TMM switch interfaces.
User application traffic
This type of traffic is typically application traffic either destined for or coming to and from a client and a server. User application traffic always uses data interfaces, and never uses the Management port. Therefore, if the TMM service is stopped, the WANJet appliance does not process this type of traffic.
Administrative traffic destined for the WANJet appliance
This type of traffic is traffic destined for the IP address of the WANJet appliances Management port. The WANJet appliance then sends its responses to these requests back through the Management port. Because administrative traffic uses the Management port, the WANJet appliance can still process this type of traffic when the TMM service is not running.
Administrative traffic coming from the WANJet appliance
The WANJet appliance generates this type of administrative traffic, and the source for this type of traffic is the IP address of the Management port. When the TMM service is running, the WANJet appliance sends this type of traffic through a data interface, using the default gateway. If the TMM service becomes unavailable, this type of traffic uses the Management port.
There are certain administrative tasks, however, such as a WANJet software installation, that you should not perform while the TMM service is running. Prior to performing these tasks, you should shut down the TMM service.
When you stop the TMM service and therefore make the data interfaces unavailable, the Management port becomes the only available interface on the WANJet appliance for administrative traffic.
Other administrative tasks that you should perform using the Management port only (because they require you to stop the TMM service) are a PXE installation and boot, and remote management using SSH and HTTPS.
The SOD service manages the high availability of system services on the WANJet appliance. If system services fail to send heartbeats, the SOD service implements whatever action is configured for that service (for example, it may restart the service or reboot the system). For details, see Configuring core services for heartbeat failure.
ntpd
Network time protocol daemon: Sets and maintains the system time of day by connecting to an external time server.
snmpd
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) daemon: Receives and processes SNMP requests, and sends trap notifications. Note that you must stop this service before updating the SNMP v3 file /config/net-snmp/snmpd.conf, which specifies SNMP user names.
sshd
Secure Shell daemon: Provides secure remote login to the WANJet appliance command line.
Core services, such as the TMM service, must run continually for the WANJet appliance to work properly. For more information on essential services, see Managing core services.
1.
In the navigation pane, expand System, and click Configuration.
2.
On the menu bar, click Services.
The System Services List opens, and shows the name of each service and its current status.
5.
Click Start, Stop, or Restart depending on the action that you want to take.
Tip: You can also start and stop optional services using the bigstart utility. For more information, see the bigstart man page.
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