Once you install and connect the 3-DNS hardware, the next step in the installation process is to turn the system on and run the Setup utility. The Setup utility defines the initial configuration settings required to install the 3-DNS into the network. You can run the Setup utility remotely from a web browser, or from an SSH or Telnet client, or you can run it directly from the console.
Before you connect to the 3-DNS, we recommend that you gather the list of information outlined in the configuration worksheet provided with the system. Note that the screens you see are tailored to the specific hardware and software configuration that you have. For example, if you have a single system, the Setup utility skips the redundant system screens.
The Setup utility prompts you to enter the same information, whether you run the utility from a web browser or from the command line. When the utility completes, we recommend that you reboot the system. This automatically removes the default IP address and root password provided specifically for the purposes of running the Setup utility remotely. The 3-DNS replaces the default IP address and root password with the password and IP addresses that you define when you run the utility for the first time.
Before you can run the Setup utility from either a console or a serial terminal, you must first log in. Use the following default user name and password to log in.
User name: root
After you log in, you can start the utility directly from the console or serial terminal by typing the command config. Once you complete the utility, we recommend that you reboot the 3-DNS.
Note: If you want to set up a terminal connection directly to the 3-DNS, see Using a serial terminal, on page 3-6 .
You can run the Setup utility remotely only from a workstation that is on the same LAN as the unit. To allow remote connections for the Setup utility, the 3-DNS comes with two pre-defined IP addresses, and a pre-defined root password. The default root password is default, and the preferred default IP address is 192.168.1.245. If this IP address is unsuitable for your network, the 3-DNS uses an alternate IP address, 192.168.245.245. However, if you define an IP alias on an administrative workstation in the same IP network as the 3-DNS, the unit detects the network of the alias and uses the corresponding default IP address.
Once the utility finishes and the system reboots, these default IP addresses and the root password are replaced by the information that you entered in the Setup utility.
You must set up an IP alias for your remote workstation before you turn on the system and start the Setup utility. The remote workstation must be on the same IP network as the system. If you add this alias prior to booting up the 3-DNS, the system detects the alias and uses the corresponding address.
The IP alias must be in the same network as the default IP address you want the 3-DNS to use. For example, on a UNIX workstation, you might create one of the following aliases:
ifconfig exp0 add 192.168.1.1
ifconfig exp0 add 192.168.245.1
Warning: On Microsoft Windows® or Windows NT® machines, you must use a static IP address, not DHCP. Within the network configuration, add an IP alias in the same network as the IP in use on the unit. For information about adding a static IP address to a Microsoft Windows operating system, please refer to your vendor's documentation.
After you configure an IP alias on the administrative workstation in the same IP network as the 3-DNS and you turn the system on, the 3-DNS sends ARPs on the internal VLAN to see if the preferred 192.168.1.245 IP address is in use. If the address is appropriate for your network and is currently available, the 3-DNS assigns it to the internal VLAN. You can immediately use it to connect to the unit and start the Setup utility.
If the alternate network is present on the LAN, 192.168.245.0/24, or if the node address 192.168.1.245 is in use, then the 3-DNS assigns the alternate IP address 192.168.245.245 to the internal VLAN instead.
When you start the utility from a web browser, you use the selected default IP address as the application URL.
You can run the command line version of the Setup utility from a remote SSH client or from a Telnet client.
The following sections provide detailed information about the settings that you define in the Setup utility when you run the utility for the first time.
Select the type of keyboard you want to use with the 3-DNS. The following options are available:
A root password allows you command line administrative access to the 3-DNS system. The password must contain a minimum of 6 characters, but no more than 32 characters. Passwords are case-sensitive, and we recommend that your password contain a combination of upper- and lower-case characters, as well as numbers and punctuation characters. Once you enter a password, the Setup utility prompts you to confirm your root password by typing it again. If the two passwords match, your password is immediately saved. If the two passwords do not match, the Setup utility provides an error message and prompts you to re-enter your password.
Warning: When you run the Setup utility for the first time, you must change the root password from default to something else. See Chapter 12, Administration and Monitoring , if you later decide you want to change the root password again.
The host name identifies the 3-DNS itself. Host names must be fully qualified domain names (FQDNs). The host portion of the name can start with a letter or digit, and must be at least two characters. The entire host name must be less than 255 characters, and each label (between dots) must be less than 63 characters.
On this screen, if you enter two or more default route addresses, the 3-DNS creates a default gateway pool. If a 3-DNS does not have a predefined route for network traffic, the unit automatically sends traffic to the pool that you define as the default gateway pool. You can think of the default gateway pool as a pool of default routes. Typically, a default gateway pool is set to zero or more gateway IP addresses. If you type more than one default gateway IP address, the additional gateways provide high availability for administrative connections. If a gateway in the default gateway pool becomes inactive, existing connections through the inactive gateway are routed through another gateway in the default gateway pool.
There are two types of settings you need to define for redundant systems: unit IDs and fail-over IP addresses.
The default unit ID number is 1. If this is the first unit in the redundant system, use the default. When you configure the second unit in the redundant system, type 2.
A fail-over IP address is the IP address of the unit that will take over if the active unit in the redundant system fails.
The media type options for each interface depend on the network interface card included in your hardware configuration. The Setup utility prompts you with the settings that apply to the interfaces installed in the system. The 3-DNS supports the following media types:
For the best results, choose the auto setting for each interface. In some cases, systems configured using the auto media setting are incompatible, and the proper duplex setting will not be negotiated. In these cases, you may need to set the media type to the same speed and duplex on this system, and on the corresponding switch or host. Check your switch or hub documentation for this information.
Warning: The Setup utility lists only the network interfaces that it detects during system boot. If the utility lists only one interface device, a network adapter may have come loose during shipping. Check the LED indicators on the network adapters to ensure that they are working and are connected.
You can create a new VLAN, or use the default VLANs, internal and external, to create the 3-DNS base network configuration. Note that in general, you need only one configured VLAN for the 3-DNS. You may want to review Chapter 5, Configuring the Base Network , before you configure any VLANs other than the defaults.
Determine whether you want to have security turned on or off for each VLAN. Then, type the IP address settings for the VLAN. The IP address settings include:
After you configure the VLANs that you want to use on the 3-DNS, you can assign interfaces to the VLANs. If you use the default VLANS, internal and external, we recommend that you assign at least one interface to external, and at least one interface to internal. In a typical configuration, the external VLAN is the one on which the 3-DNS receives connection requests. Note that the VLAN internal is optional. If you plan on running the 3-DNS in bridge or router mode, you can configure a second VLAN for a particular IP subnet. For more information on the bridge and router modes, see Configuring the 3-DNS mode, on page 4-8 .
If you have defined more than one VLAN, you have assigned interfaces to them, you can choose one VLAN/IP address combination as the primary IP address to associate with the system's host name.
The 3-DNS web server provides the ability to set up remote web access on each VLAN. When you set up web access on a VLAN, you can connect to the web-based Configuration utility through the VLAN. To enable web access, specify a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for each VLAN. The 3-DNS web server configuration also requires that you define a user name and password. If SSL is available, the configuration also generates authentication certificates.
The Setup utility guides you through a series of screens to set up remote web access.
You can also add users to the existing password file, change a password for an existing user, or recreate the password file, without actually repeating the remote web server configuration process. Refer to Managing users on the 3-DNS , in Chapter 12, Administration and Monitoring .
Warning: If you have modified the remote web server configuration outside of the Configuration utility, be aware that some changes may be lost when you run the Configure web servers option in the Setup utility. This utility overwrites the httpd.conf file and openssl.conf, but does not warn you before doing so.
Next, you need to specify the time zone for the region that the 3-DNS is in. This ensures that the clock for the 3-DNS is set correctly, and that dates and times recorded in log files correspond to the time zone of the system administrator. Scroll through the list to find the time zone at your location. Note that one option may appear with multiple names. Select the time zone you want to use, and press the Enter key to continue.
The 3-DNS can now run in three different modes: node, bridge, and router.
After you configure remote web access, the Setup utility prompts you to configure remote command line access. On most 3-DNS units, the first screen you see is the Configure SSH screen, which prompts you to type an IP address for SSH command line access. If SSH is not available, you are prompted to configure access through RSH instead.
When you configure remote command line access, the Setup utility prompts you to create a support account for that method. You can use this support account to provide a support engineer access to the 3-DNS.
When the Setup utility prompts you to enter an IP address for administration, you can type a single IP address or a list of IP addresses, from which the 3-DNS will accept administrative connections (either remote shell connections, or connections to the web server on the 3-DNS). To specify a range of IP addresses, you can use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard character in the IP addresses.
The following example allows remote administration from all hosts on the 192.168.2.0/24 network:
Note: For administration purposes, you can connect to the 3-DNS floating self IP address, which always connects you to the active unit in an active/standby redundant system. To connect to a specific unit, connect directly to the IP address of that 3-DNS.
Use this option to configure secure shell server (ssh) on a 3-DNS. This utility prompts you for an IP address from which administrators may access the 3-DNS with SSH. You can use wildcard characters (*) to include all addresses from a specific part of the network. This utility also prompts you to create a support account for access by technical support.
If the service port for SSH is closed, this utility opens the service port to permit SSH connections to the 3-DNS.
Use this option to configure the remote shell (rsh) server on a 3-DNS. This utility prompts you for an IP address from which administrators may access the 3-DNS. You can use wildcard characters (*) to include all addresses from a specific part of the network. This utility also prompts you to create a support account for access by technical support.
If inetd is not currently configured, this utility configures inetd for the remote shell server (rshd). If the service port for rsh is closed, this utility opens the service port to permit rsh connections to the 3-DNS.
Select this option to configure the CORBA ports (IIOP and FSSL). This option prompts you for a list of IP addresses or host names you want to embed as objects in the Portal object reference.
This option prompts you to set the Portal to use IP addresses instead of DNS names. If the Portal is set to use IP addresses, the 3-DNS does not have to do a DNS lookup.
In addition to these settings, you can change the following iControl portal settings:
You can synchronize the time on the 3-DNS to a public time server by using Network Time Protocol (NTP). NTP is built on top of UDP and assures accurate, local timekeeping with reference to clocks located on the Internet. The NTP protocol is capable of synchronizing distributed clocks, within milliseconds, over long periods of time. If you choose to enable NTP, make sure UDP port 123 is open in both directions when the 3-DNS is behind a firewall.
In the final series of the Setup utility screens, you choose whether to have NameSurfer handle DNS zone file management on the current 3-DNS. If you configure the 3-DNS in node mode, we strongly recommend that you configure NameSurfer to handle zone file management. If you designate NameSurfer as the primary name server, NameSurfer converts the DNS zone files on the system, becomes the authoritative DNS, and automatically processes changes and updates to the zone files. (You can access the NameSurfer application directly from the Configuration utility).
You can also use the Setup utility to change existing settings at any time. After you complete the initial configuration, the Setup utility presents a menu of individual configuration options. There is a section of required configuration options and a section of optional configuration options.
To run the Setup utility from the command line, type in the following command:
Figure 4.1 shows the Setup utility menu.
lqq I N I T I A L S E T U P M E N U qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqk
x Choose the desired configuration function from the list below. x
x (A) All configuration steps (R) Steps for redundant systems x
x REQUIRED x
x (E) Set default gateway pool (V) Configure VLANs & networking x
x (H) Set host name (W) Configure web servers x
x (P) Set root password x
x OPTIONAL x
x (D) Configure DNS (O) Configure remote access x
x (F) Configure FTP (S) Configure SSH x
x (I) Initialize iControl portal (T) Configure Telnetd x
x (K) Set keyboard type (U) Configure RSH x
x (M) Define time servers (Z) Set time zone x
x (N) Configure NameSurfer (Q) Quit x
x Enter Choice: x
The following Setup utility options are available after you have configured the 3-DNS for the first time. Note that while these options are available as part of the platform, you may not want to enable them for security reasons.
Use this utility to configure FTP on the 3-DNS. This utility prompts you for an IP address from which administrators may access the 3-DNS with FTP. You can use wildcard characters (*) to include all addresses from a specific part of the network. This utility also prompts you to create a support account for access by technical support.
If the service port for FTP is closed, this utility opens the service port to permit FTP connections to the 3-DNS.
Use this option to configure Telnet on the 3-DNS. The utility prompts you for a configuration address for each service from which administrators may access the 3-DNS. You can use wildcard characters (*) to include all addresses from a specific part of the network. This utility also prompts you to create a support account for access by technical support.
If inetd is not currently configured, this utility configures inetd for the requested services. If the ports for Telnet or FTP are closed, this utility opens the ports to permit Telnet or FTP connections to the 3-DNS.