There are two basic tasks required to get the 3DNS Controller installed and set up. First, you need to connect the peripheral hardware and connect the 3DNS Controller to the network, and then you need to turn the system on and run the First-Time Boot utility. The First-Time Boot utility is a wizard that helps you configure basic system elements such as administrative passwords, IP addresses, and host names for both the root system and for the 3DNS web server. Once you complete the First-Time Boot utility, you can continue the configuration process either from a remote administrative workstation, or from the console itself.
The 3DNS Controller comes with the separate hardware pieces that you need for installation and maintenance. You must provide standard peripheral hardware, such as a keyboard or serial terminal.
When you unpack the 3DNS Controller, you should make sure that the following components are included:
If you purchased a hardware-based redundant system, you also receive one fail-over cable to connect the two controller units together (network-based redundant systems do not require a fail-over cable). Additionally, if you purchased a US 3DNS Controller that supports encryption, you receive the F-Secure SSH Client manual, published by Data Fellows.
For each 3DNS Controller in the system, you need to provide the following peripheral hardware:
If you plan on doing remote administration from your own PC workstation as most users do, we recommend that you have your workstation already in place. Keep in mind that the First-Time Boot utility prompts you to enter your workstation's IP address when you set up remote administrative access.
Before you begin to install the 3DNS Controller, you may want to quickly review the following figures that illustrate the controls and ports on both the front and the back of a standard 3DNS Controller. If you have a special hardware configuration, the ports on the back of your unit will differ slightly from those shown below.
|1. Fan filter 2. Keyboard lock 3. Reset button 4. Keyboard lock LED 5. Hard disk drive LED||6. Power LED 7. On/off button 8. 3.5 floppy disk drive 9. CD-ROM drive|
Figure 3.1 illustrates the front of a 3DNS Controller with the access panel open. On the front of the unit, you can turn the unit off and on, or you can reset the unit. You can also view the indicator lights for hard disk access and for the keyboard lock.
Figure 3.2 , the following figure, illustrates the back of a 3DNS Controller. Note that all ports are labeled, even those which are not intended to be used with the 3DNS Controller. Ports marked with an asterisk (*) in the list following are not used by the 3DNS Controller, and do not need to be connected to any peripheral hardware.
|1. Fan 2. Power in 3. Voltage selector 4. Mouse port* 5. Keyboard port 6. Universal serial bus ports* 7. Serial terminal port||8. Printer port* 9. Fail-over port 10. Video (VGA) port 11. Secondary Ethernet interface (RJ-45) 12. Primary Ethernet interface (RJ-45) 13. Interface indicator LEDs 14. Watchdog card*|
*Not to be connected to any peripheral hardware.
A 3DNS Controller is an industrial network appliance, designed to be mounted in a standard 19-inch rack. To ensure safe installation and operation of the unit, be sure to consider the following before you install the unit in the rack:
Warning: The 3DNS Controller contains a lithium battery. There is danger of an explosion if you replace the lithium battery incorrectly. We recommend that you replace the battery only with the same type of battery originally installed in the unit, or with an equivalent type recommended by the battery manufacturer. Be sure to discard all used batteries according to the manufacturer's instructions.
There are six basic steps to installing the hardware. You simply need to install the controller in the rack, connect the peripheral hardware and the network interfaces, and then connect the fail-over and power cables.
· If you are using a VGA monitor and keyboard, connect the monitor connector cable to the video port (number 10 in Figure 3.2 , on page 3-4) and the keyboard connector cable to the keyboard port (number 5 in Figure 3.2 , on page 3-4). Note that a PC/AT-to-PS/2 keyboard adapter is included with each 3DNS Controller (see the component list on page 3-2).
· Optionally, if you are using a serial terminal as the console, connect the serial cable to the terminal serial port (number 7 in Figure 3.2 ). Also, you should not connect a keyboard to the 3DNS Controller. When there is no keyboard connected to the 3DNS Controller, the 3DNS Controller defaults to using the serial port as the console.
If you want to configure a serial terminal for the 3DNS Controller in addition to the standard console, you need to follow the configuration steps below. Note that if you are using a serial vt100 connection, you must edit both the /etc/ttys and bash_profile files on the 3DNS Controller.
- 9600 baud
- 8 bits
- 1 stop bit
- No parity
# PC COM ports (tty00 is DOS COM1) \
tty00 "/usr/libexec/getty default" vt100 in secure tty01 off
The First-Time Boot utility is a wizard that walks you through a brief series of required configuration tasks, such as defining a root password, and configuring IP addresses for the network interfaces. Once you complete the First-Time Boot utility, you can connect to the 3DNS Controller from a remote workstation and begin configuring your load balancing set up.
The First-Time Boot utility is organized into three phases: configure, confirm, and commit. Each phase walks you through a series of screens, presenting the information in the following order:
First, you configure all of the required information, then you have the opportunity to confirm each individual setting or correct it if necessary, and then your confirmed settings are committed and saved to the system. Note that the screens you see are tailored to the specific hardware and software configuration that you have. If you have a stand-alone system, for example, the First-Time Boot utility skips the redundant system screens.
Before you run the First-Time Boot utility on a specific 3DNS Controller, you should have the following information ready to enter:
When you run the First-Time Boot utility on an international 3DNS Controller, certain screens are different from the screens that are shown when you run the First-Time Boot utility on a US 3DNS Controller. On US 3DNS Controllers, the First-Time Boot utility prompts you to configure an administrative IP address from which the 3DNS Controller accepts ssh connections. On international 3DNS Controllers, the First-Time Boot utility prompts you to configure an administrative IP address from which the 3DNS Controller accepts rsh connections.
The 3DNS Controller stores the administrative IP address for rsh and rcp connections in the /etc/hosts.allow file. Note that storing the administrative IP address in the /etc/hosts.allow file may be slightly different from other common rsh configurations where it is often stored in the /etc/hosts.equiv file.
You run the First-Time Boot utility directly on the console, using the VGA monitor and keyboard. Once you turn on the power switch (located on the front of the 3DNS Controller as shown in Figure 3.1 , number 7), the 3DNS Controller displays the License Agreement screen. You must scroll through the screen, read it and accept the agreement before you can move to the next screen. If you agree to the license statement, the next screen you see is the Welcome screen. From this screen, simply press any key on the keyboard, and then follow the instructions on the subsequent screens to complete the process.
A root password allows you administrative access to the 3DNS Controller system. The password must contain a minimum of 6 characters, but no more than 128 characters. Passwords are case-sensitive, and we recommend that your password contain a combination of upper and lowercase characters, as well as punctuation characters. Once you enter a password, the First-Time Boot utility prompts you to confirm your root password by typing it again. If the two passwords match, your password is immediately saved. If the two passwords do not match, you receive an error message and are asked to re-enter your password.
Warning: The root password is the only setting that is saved immediately, rather than confirmed and committed at the end of the First-Time Boot utility process. You cannot change the root password until the First-Time Boot utility completes and you reboot the 3DNS Controller (see To change the root user password for command line access , on page 7-33 for details). Note that you can change other system settings when the First-Time Boot utility prompts you to confirm your configuration settings.
The host name identifies the 3DNS Controller itself. Host names must start with a letter or number, and must be at least two characters. They may contain numbers, letters, and the symbols for a dash ( - ) and a period ( . ) if you like. There are no additional restrictions on host names, other than those imposed by your own network requirements.
If a 3DNS Controller does not have a predefined static route for network traffic, the unit automatically sends traffic to the IP address that you define as the default route. Typically, a default route is set to a router's IP address.
Next, you need to specify your time zone. This ensures that the clock for the 3DNS Controller is set correctly, and that dates and times recorded in log files correspond to the time zone of the system administrator. Scroll through the system file to find the time zone closest to your location. Note that one option may appear with multiple names. Select the time zone you want to use, and press Enter to continue.
On the Configure 3DNS Interfaces screen, select Yes if you have a redundant system. You must configure the primary Ethernet interface, but you configure the secondary Ethernet interface only if you want to have two independent network access paths to the 3DNS Controller. The utility prompts you for each interface, and asks you to provide the IP address, netmask, broadcast address, and the interface media type.
If you have a redundant system, you are also prompted to provide the IP address that serves as an IP alias for both 3DNS Controllers. The IP alias is shared between the units, and is used only by the currently active machine. Each individual controller uses unique IP addresses on its network interface card(s). The First-Time Boot utility guides you through configuring the interfaces, based on your hardware configuration:
The Select Interface screen shows a list of the installed interfaces. Select the one you want to use for the primary Ethernet interface, and press Enter (the primary Ethernet interface is typically named exp0). The utility prompts you for the following information, in many cases offering you a default:
Warning: The First-Time Boot utility lists only the network interface cards that it detects during boot up. If the utility lists only one interface card, the network adapter may have come loose during shipping. Check the LED indicators on the network adapters to ensure that they have properly detected the 3DNS Controller media that should be installed.
Once you select the interface, you need to enter the following information:
If you want to have two separate network access paths to the 3DNS Controller, you can configure a secondary Ethernet interface to connect to the network as well. When you configure the internal network interface, you input the same type of information that you used to configure the primary Ethernet interface:
The screens that you see for configuring remote administration vary, depending on whether you have a US 3DNS Controller, or an international 3DNS Controller. On a US 3DNS Controller, the first screen you see is the Configure SSH screen, which prompts you to type in an address for SSH command line access. On international 3DNS Controllers that do not have SSH, the First-Time Boot utility skips this screen (international 3DNS Controllers host remote administrative connections using rsh).
Next, the First-Time Boot utility prompts you to enter a single IP address or a range of IP addresses, from which the 3DNS Controller will accept administrative connections (either remote shell connections, or connections to the 3DNS web server). To specify a range of IP addresses, you can use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard character in the IP addresses.
The following example allows remote administration from all hosts on the 192.168.2.0 network:
Tip: You must configure command line access for redundant systems. If you do not configure command line access, the two controllers in the system cannot communicate with each other, and they cannot properly initiate a fail-over.
The 3DNS web server requires you to define a domain name for the server on the primary Ethernet interface, and, if you are using the secondary Ethernet interface, you must define a domain name on that interface as well. The 3DNS web server configuration requires that you define a user ID and password. On US products, the configuration also generates certificates for authentication.
The First-Time Boot utility guides you through a series of screens to set up web server access:
Note that if you ever change the IP addresses or host names on the 3DNS Controller interfaces, you need to reconfigure the 3DNS web server to reflect your new settings. You can run the re-configuration utility from the command line using the following command:
If you wish to create a new password for the 3DNS web server, delete the /var/f5/httpd/basicauth/users file before running the config-httpd utility. If this file is missing from the configuration, the utility prompts you for both user ID and password information.
You can also add users to the existing password file, change a password for an existing user, or recreate the password file, without actually going through the 3DNS web server configuration process. For more information, see To add a new user ID using the F5 Configuration utility , on page 7-33.
Warning: If you have modified the 3DNS web server configuration outside of the configuration utility, be aware that some changes may be lost when you run the config-httpd utility. This utility overwrites the httpd.conf file, and several other files, but it does warn you before doing so.
In the next series of screens, you identify other 3DNS Controllers and BIG/ip Controllers running on the network that the current 3DNS Controller needs to communicate with. For each additional 3DNS Controller or BIG/ip Controller, you need to enter the IP address, the root user ID, whether you access the controller using SSH or rsh, and you need to select which sync group the controller is a part of. A sync group is a group of 3DNS Controllers that share configuration settings and path statistics.
Note that if you are defining a redundant system (either 3DNS Controllers or BIG/ip Controllers), you need to enter the IP address of controller, as well as the shared IP alias for each interface on the controller. You also need to choose whether the current 3DNS Controller will be a principal or a receiver (note that each sync group can have only one principal, but can have an unlimited number of receivers).
At any time, you can view the list of currently defined controllers, and you can use the List is Complete option to exit these screens and move on to the next configuration task.
In the final series of screens, you chose whether you want to use NameSurfer to handle DNS zone file management on the current 3DNS Controller. We strongly recommend that you configure NameSurfer to handle zone file management by selecting NameSurfer to be the master on the 3DNS Controller. After you select NameSurfer as the master, NameSurfer converts the master DNS zone files on the controller and handles all changes and updates to these files (note that you can access the NameSurfer application directly from the F5 Configuration utility). For details about converting existing BIND files to NameSurfer, see To transfer and convert existing BIND files on page C-21.
At this point, you should have entered all the configuration information, and now you confirm each setting. Each confirmation screen displays a setting, and prompts you to accept or re-enter it. If you choose to edit it, the utility displays the original configuration screen in which you defined the setting the first time. When you finish editing the item, you return directly to the Confirmation screen for that item, and continue the confirmation process. Note that once you accept a setting in the Confirmation screen, you do not have another opportunity to review it.
You confirm or edit the settings in the same order that you configured them:
Once you have confirmed the last setting, the First-Time Boot utility moves directly into the commit phase, where you are not able to make any changes.
Once you confirm all of the configuration settings, the configuration utility saves the configuration settings. During this commit process, the First-Time Boot utility creates the following files and tables:
If you want to change any information in these files at a later time, you can edit the files directly, you can change the information in the web-based Configuration utility, or for certain settings, you can change them using command line utilities. If necessary, you can also re-run the First-Time Boot utility.
If you are setting up a US 3DNS Controller that needs to communicate with international 3DNS Controllers, you need to enable the rsh and rcp tools on the US 3DNS Controller. These are the standard communication and copying tools that international 3DNS Controller and BIG/ip Controllers use.
Run the rsetup script from the command line. The rsetup script performs several essential steps to enable access for rsh and rcp, and we strongly recommend that you use the script rather than doing this manually.
The type of system you have determines the options you have for remote command line administration:
If you are working with a US 3DNS Controller, you probably want to install the F-Secure SSH client on your workstation. The 3DNS Controller includes a version of the F-Secure SSH client for each of the following platforms: Windows, UNIX, and Macintosh. You can download the F-Secure client using your web browser, or you can download the client using an FTP server on the administrative workstation.
Note that the F-Secure license agreement allows you to download two copies of the F-Secure SSH client. If you require additional licenses, you need to contact Data Fellows. For information about contacting Data Fellows, as well as information about working with the SSH client, refer to the F-Secure manual included with your 3DNS Controller.
Note: You can also use the F-Secure SSH suite for file transfer to and from the 3DNS Controller, as well as for remote backups. An F- Secure SSH client is pre-installed on the 3DNS Controller to assist with file transfer activities. Please refer to the F-Secure User's Manual for more information.
The F-Secure SSH client is available in the Downloads section of the 3DNS web server. For US products, you connect to the 3DNS web server via SSL on port 443 (use https:// rather than http:// in the URL). Once you connect to the 3DNS web server, click the Downloads link. From the Downloads page, you can select the SSH Client.
The 3DNS Controller has an FTP client installed, which allows you to transfer the F-Secure SSH Client using FTP (note that your destination workstation must also have an FTP server installed). After you transfer the installation file, you simply decompress the file and run the F-Secure installation program.
You initiate the transfer from the 3DNS Controller itself, using the monitor and keyboard, or the serial terminal, attached directly to the 3DNS Controller.
a) Go to the /usr/contrib/fsecure directory where the F-secure SSH clients are stored.
b) List the directory, noting the file name that corresponds to the operating system of your administration workstation.
open <IP address>
Once you connect to the administrative workstation, the FTP server on the administrative workstation prompts you for a password.
The F-Secure SSH client installation file for Windows platforms is compressed in ZIP format. You can use standard ZIP tools, such as PKZip or WinZip to extract the file.
a) 3DNS Controller IP address or host name
b) The root user name
c) The root password
The F-Secure installation file for UNIX platforms is compressed in TAR/Gzip format.
ssh -l root [3DNS IP address]